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Article

Treponema pallidum among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Three Major Cities in Northern Brazil

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Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia de Agentes Infecciosos e Parasitários, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém 66075-110, PA, Brazil
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Laboratório de Virologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém 66075-110, PA, Brazil
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Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Acre, Rio Branco 69900-607, AC, Brazil
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Seção de Virologia, Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Amapá, Macapá 68905-320, AP, Brazil
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Grupo de Estudo e Pesquisa em Populações Vulneráveis, Instituto de Estudos Costeiros, Universidade Federal do Pará, Bragança 68600-000, PA, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ryan O. M. Rego
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080923
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 6 July 2021 / Accepted: 7 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
Female sex workers (FSWs) are an important group of people vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. Northern Brazil is a rural and socioeconomically underdeveloped region, with lack of epidemiological information on syphilis in key populations. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with exposure to Treponema pallidum among FSWs in three major cities in northern Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 415 FSWs from the cities of Belém, Macapá, and Rio Branco. Blood samples and personal data were collected from January 2009 to August 2010. Rapid plasma reagin and immunoenzymatic assays were used to detect antibodies against T. pallidum. Logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with exposure to T. pallidum. In total, 36.1% were exposed to T. pallidum, and 15.7% had active syphilis. Sexual risk behaviors, use of illicit drugs, low education, and reduced monthly income were associated with exposure to T. pallidum. The high rate of exposure to T. pallidum indicates the urgent need for measures to identify, treat, and prevent syphilis and an education program for the valuation, care, and social inclusion of FSWs in northern Brazil. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; public health; Treponema pallidum; female sex workers; vulnerability; health promotion; Brazil epidemiology; public health; Treponema pallidum; female sex workers; vulnerability; health promotion; Brazil
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MDPI and ACS Style

Machado, L.F.A.; Monteiro, J.C.; Siravenha, L.Q.; Mota, M.P.; Souza, M.d.C.; Santos, A.S.d.; Moreira, M.R.C.; Laurentino, R.V.; Oliveira-Filho, A.B.; Queiroz, M.A.F.; Lima, S.S.; Ishak, R.; Ishak, M.d.O.G. Treponema pallidum among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Three Major Cities in Northern Brazil. Pathogens 2021, 10, 923. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080923

AMA Style

Machado LFA, Monteiro JC, Siravenha LQ, Mota MP, Souza MdC, Santos ASd, Moreira MRC, Laurentino RV, Oliveira-Filho AB, Queiroz MAF, Lima SS, Ishak R, Ishak MdOG. Treponema pallidum among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Three Major Cities in Northern Brazil. Pathogens. 2021; 10(8):923. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080923

Chicago/Turabian Style

Machado, Luiz F.A., Jacqueline C. Monteiro, Leonardo Q. Siravenha, Marcelo P. Mota, Marlinda d.C. Souza, Adalto S.d. Santos, Márcio R.C. Moreira, Rogério V. Laurentino, Aldemir B. Oliveira-Filho, Maria A.F. Queiroz, Sandra S. Lima, Ricardo Ishak, and Marluísa d.O.G. Ishak 2021. "Treponema pallidum among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Three Major Cities in Northern Brazil" Pathogens 10, no. 8: 923. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10080923

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