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Article

Pathogenesis of Two Western Mediterranean West Nile Virus Lineage 1 Isolates in Experimentally Infected Red-Legged Partridges (Alectoris rufa)

1
Grupo SaBio (Sanidad y Biotecnología), Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC) (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA) del Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA-CSIC), 28130 Madrid, Spain
3
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiologia y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: El-Sayed Mohammed Abdel-Whab
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060748
Received: 8 May 2021 / Revised: 6 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 13 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus Infection)
West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread flavivirus in the world with a wide vertebrate host range. Its geographic expansion and activity continue to increase with important human and equine outbreaks and local bird mortality. In a previous experiment, we demonstrated the susceptibility of 7-week-old red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) to Mediterranean WNV isolates Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007, which varied in virulence for this gallinaceous species. Here we study the pathogenesis of the infection with these two strains to explain the different course of infection and mortality. Day six post-inoculation was critical in the course of infection, with the highest viral load in tissues, the most widespread virus antigen, and more severe lesions. The most affected organs were the heart, liver, and spleen. Comparing infections with Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007, differences were observed in the viral load, virus antigen distribution, and lesion nature and severity. A more acute and marked inflammatory reaction (characterized by participation of microglia and CD3+ T cells) as well as neuronal necrosis in the brain were observed in partridges infected with Morocco/2003 as compared to those infected with Spain/2007. This suggests a higher neurovirulence of Morocco/2003, probably related to one or more specific molecular determinants of virulence different from Spain/2007. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile virus lineage 1; pathogenesis; neurovirulence; red-legged partridge; antigen distribution; inflammatory reaction West Nile virus lineage 1; pathogenesis; neurovirulence; red-legged partridge; antigen distribution; inflammatory reaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gamino, V.; Pérez-Ramírez, E.; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, A.V.; Sotelo, E.; Llorente, F.; Jiménez-Clavero, M.Á.; Höfle, U. Pathogenesis of Two Western Mediterranean West Nile Virus Lineage 1 Isolates in Experimentally Infected Red-Legged Partridges (Alectoris rufa). Pathogens 2021, 10, 748. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060748

AMA Style

Gamino V, Pérez-Ramírez E, Gutiérrez-Guzmán AV, Sotelo E, Llorente F, Jiménez-Clavero MÁ, Höfle U. Pathogenesis of Two Western Mediterranean West Nile Virus Lineage 1 Isolates in Experimentally Infected Red-Legged Partridges (Alectoris rufa). Pathogens. 2021; 10(6):748. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060748

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gamino, Virginia, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Ana V. Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Elena Sotelo, Francisco Llorente, Miguel Á. Jiménez-Clavero, and Ursula Höfle. 2021. "Pathogenesis of Two Western Mediterranean West Nile Virus Lineage 1 Isolates in Experimentally Infected Red-Legged Partridges (Alectoris rufa)" Pathogens 10, no. 6: 748. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060748

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