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Case Report

Investigation of an EHV-1 Outbreak in the United States Caused by a New H752 Genotype

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Alliance Equine Health Care, Glenmoore, PA 19343, USA
3
Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348, USA
4
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Health, Collegeville, PA 17110, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Magda Dunowska
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060747
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 13 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Herpesviruses)
Here we report on an EHV-1 outbreak investigation caused by a novel genotype H752 (histidine in amino acid position 752 of the ORF 30 gene). The outbreak involved 31 performance horses. Horses were monitored over a period of 35 days for clinical signs, therapeutic outcome and qPCR results of EHV-1 in blood and nasal secretions. The morbidity of the EHV-1 outbreak was 84% with 26 clinically infected horses displaying fever and less frequently anorexia and distal limb edema. Four horses showed mild transient neurological deficits. Clinically diseased horses experienced high viral load of EHV-1 in blood and/or nasal secretions via qPCR, while subclinically infected horses had detectable EHV-1 mainly in nasal secretions. The majority of infected horses showed a rise in antibody titers to EHV-1 during the outbreak. All 31 horses were treated with valacyclovir, while clinically infected horses further received flunixin meglumine and sodium heparin. This investigation highlights various relevant aspects of an EHV-1 outbreak caused by a new H752 genotype: (i) importance of early detection of EHV-1 infection; (ii) diagnostic challenge to assess H752 genotype; (iii) apparent benefit of valacyclovir use in the early stage of the outbreak; and (iv) weekly testing of blood and nasal secretions by qPCR in order to monitor individual infection status and lift quarantine. View Full-Text
Keywords: EHV-1; new genotype; H752; outbreak; horses EHV-1; new genotype; H752; outbreak; horses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pusterla, N.; Barnum, S.; Miller, J.; Varnell, S.; Dallap-Schaer, B.; Aceto, H.; Simeone, A. Investigation of an EHV-1 Outbreak in the United States Caused by a New H752 Genotype. Pathogens 2021, 10, 747. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060747

AMA Style

Pusterla N, Barnum S, Miller J, Varnell S, Dallap-Schaer B, Aceto H, Simeone A. Investigation of an EHV-1 Outbreak in the United States Caused by a New H752 Genotype. Pathogens. 2021; 10(6):747. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060747

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pusterla, Nicola, Samantha Barnum, Julia Miller, Sarah Varnell, Barbara Dallap-Schaer, Helen Aceto, and Aliza Simeone. 2021. "Investigation of an EHV-1 Outbreak in the United States Caused by a New H752 Genotype" Pathogens 10, no. 6: 747. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060747

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