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Replication of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Amphibian and Reptile-Derived Cell Lines
Article

Over 100 Years of Rift Valley Fever: A Patchwork of Data on Pathogen Spread and Spillover

1
Quantitative Veterinary Epidemiology, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Biological Sciences and Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
3
BIOPAR, INRAE, Oniris, 44300 Nantes, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Véronique Chevalier, Philippe Dussart and Benoit Durand
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060708
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 28 May 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 5 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Japanese Encephalitis and Rift Valley Fever)
During the past 100 years, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, has caused potentially lethal disease in livestock, and has been associated with significant economic losses and trade bans. Spillover to humans occurs and can be fatal. Here, we combined data on RVF disease in humans (22 countries) and animals (37 countries) from 1931 to 2020 with seroprevalence studies from 1950 to 2020 (n = 228) from publicly available databases and publications to draw a more complete picture of the past and current RVFV epidemiology. RVFV has spread from its original locus in Kenya throughout Africa and into the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout the study period seroprevalence increased in both humans and animals, suggesting potentially increased RVFV exposure. In 24 countries, animals or humans tested positive for RVFV antibodies even though outbreaks had never been reported there, suggesting RVFV transmission may well go unnoticed. Among ruminants, sheep were the most likely to be exposed during RVF outbreaks, but not during periods of cryptic spread. We discuss critical data gaps and highlight the need for detailed study descriptions, and long-term studies using a one health approach to further convert the patchwork of data to the tale of RFV epidemiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: bunyavirales; mosquito-borne disease; notifiable disease; Rift Valley fever phlebovirus; ProMED bunyavirales; mosquito-borne disease; notifiable disease; Rift Valley fever phlebovirus; ProMED
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    Doi: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/54UKB
    Link: https://osf.io/54ukb/
    Description: Data is contained within the supplementary material and the Open Science Framework (OSF) repository (DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/UXRA6), as part of the OSF project (DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/54UKB). Code to reproduce figures and tables is available in the OSF project (https://osf.io/uvdjk/).
MDPI and ACS Style

Bron, G.M.; Strimbu, K.; Cecilia, H.; Lerch, A.; Moore, S.M.; Tran, Q.; Perkins, T.A.; ten Bosch, Q.A. Over 100 Years of Rift Valley Fever: A Patchwork of Data on Pathogen Spread and Spillover. Pathogens 2021, 10, 708. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060708

AMA Style

Bron GM, Strimbu K, Cecilia H, Lerch A, Moore SM, Tran Q, Perkins TA, ten Bosch QA. Over 100 Years of Rift Valley Fever: A Patchwork of Data on Pathogen Spread and Spillover. Pathogens. 2021; 10(6):708. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060708

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bron, Gebbiena M., Kathryn Strimbu, Hélène Cecilia, Anita Lerch, Sean M. Moore, Quan Tran, T. A. Perkins, and Quirine A. ten Bosch 2021. "Over 100 Years of Rift Valley Fever: A Patchwork of Data on Pathogen Spread and Spillover" Pathogens 10, no. 6: 708. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060708

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