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Article

Fire Ant Venom Alkaloids: Possible Control Measure for Soilborne and Foliar Plant Pathogens

1
Entomology Department, Purdue University, 901 W State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tennessee State University, McMinnville, TN 37110, USA
3
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, 301 Funchess Hall, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nemat O. Keyhani
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060659
Received: 3 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
The purpose of this study was to evaluate fire ant venom alkaloids and an alarm pheromone analog against several plant pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora nicotianae, P. cryptogea, Pseudomonas syringae, Phytopythium citrinum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotonia rolfsii, Xanthomonas axonopodis, and X. campestris. All pathogens were tested against red imported fire ant venom alkaloid extract and alarm pheromone compound for growth inhibition in in vitro assay. The venom alkaloid extract inhibited fungal and oomycete pathogens. Neither of the treatments were effective against bacterial pathogens. Three soilborne pathogens, P. nicotianae, R. solani, F. oxysporum, and one foliar pathogen, B. cinerea were selected for further in-vivo assays on impatiens (Impatiens walleriana ‘Super Elfin XP violet’). Total plant and root weight were higher in venom alkaloid treated plants compared to an inoculated control. The venom alkaloid treatment reduced damping-off, root rot severity, and pathogen recovery in soilborne pathogen inoculated plants. Similarly, venom alkaloid reduced Botrytis blight. However, higher venom rates caused foliar phytotoxicity on plants. Therefore, additional work is needed to evaluate rates of venom alkaloids or formulations to eliminate negative impacts on plants. Overall, these results suggest that red imported fire ant venom alkaloids may provide a basis for new products to control soilborne and foliar plant pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: soilborne pathogens; foliar pathogens; red imported fire ant; venom alkaloids; alarm pheromone; inhibitory zone; natural products soilborne pathogens; foliar pathogens; red imported fire ant; venom alkaloids; alarm pheromone; inhibitory zone; natural products
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dawadi, S.; Baysal-Gurel, F.; Addesso, K.M.; Liyanapathiranage, P.; Simmons, T. Fire Ant Venom Alkaloids: Possible Control Measure for Soilborne and Foliar Plant Pathogens. Pathogens 2021, 10, 659. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060659

AMA Style

Dawadi S, Baysal-Gurel F, Addesso KM, Liyanapathiranage P, Simmons T. Fire Ant Venom Alkaloids: Possible Control Measure for Soilborne and Foliar Plant Pathogens. Pathogens. 2021; 10(6):659. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060659

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dawadi, Sujan, Fulya Baysal-Gurel, Karla M. Addesso, Prabha Liyanapathiranage, and Terri Simmons. 2021. "Fire Ant Venom Alkaloids: Possible Control Measure for Soilborne and Foliar Plant Pathogens" Pathogens 10, no. 6: 659. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060659

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