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Open AccessArticle

The Herbal Supplements NOZEMAT HERB® and NOZEMAT HERB PLUS®: An Alternative Therapy for N. ceranae Infection and Its Effects on Honey Bee Strength and Production Traits

1
Research Centre of Stockbreeding and Agriculture, Agricultural Academy, Smolyan 4700, Bulgaria
2
Institute of Animal Science, Department Special Branches, Agricultural Academy, Kostinbrod 2230, Bulgaria
3
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Department of Animal Diversity and Resources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giovanni Benelli and Giovanni Cilia
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020234
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 17 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection in Honey Bees: Host–Pathogen Interaction and Spillover)
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the most effective pollinators for different crops and wild flowering plants, thus maintaining numerous ecosystems in the world. However, honey bee colonies often suffer from stress or even death due to various pests and diseases. Among the latter, nosemosis is considered to be one of the most common diseases, causing serious damage to beekeeping every year. Here, we present, for the first time, the effects from the application of the herbal supplements NOZEMAT HERB® (NH) and NOZEMAT HERB PLUS® (NHP) for treating N. ceranae infection and positively influencing the general development of honey bee colonies. To achieve this, in autumn 2019, 45 colonies were selected based on the presence of N. ceranae infections. The treatment was carried out for 11 months (August 2019–June 2020). All colonies were sampled pre- and post-treatment for the presence of N. ceranae by means of light microscopy and PCR analysis. The honey bee colonies’ performance and health were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. The obtained results have shown that both supplements have exhibited statistically significant biological activity against N. ceranae in infected apiaries. Considerable enhancement in the strength of honey bee colonies and the amount of sealed workers was observed just one month after the application of NH and NHP. Although the mechanisms of action of NH and NHP against N. ceranae infection are yet to be completely elucidated, our results suggest a new holistic approach as an alternative therapy to control nosemosis and to improve honey bee colonies’ performance and health. View Full-Text
Keywords: microsporidia; nosemosis control; phytotherapy; 16S rDNA gene microsporidia; nosemosis control; phytotherapy; 16S rDNA gene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shumkova, R.; Balkanska, R.; Hristov, P. The Herbal Supplements NOZEMAT HERB® and NOZEMAT HERB PLUS®: An Alternative Therapy for N. ceranae Infection and Its Effects on Honey Bee Strength and Production Traits. Pathogens 2021, 10, 234. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020234

AMA Style

Shumkova R, Balkanska R, Hristov P. The Herbal Supplements NOZEMAT HERB® and NOZEMAT HERB PLUS®: An Alternative Therapy for N. ceranae Infection and Its Effects on Honey Bee Strength and Production Traits. Pathogens. 2021; 10(2):234. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020234

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shumkova, Rositsa; Balkanska, Ralitsa; Hristov, Peter. 2021. "The Herbal Supplements NOZEMAT HERB® and NOZEMAT HERB PLUS®: An Alternative Therapy for N. ceranae Infection and Its Effects on Honey Bee Strength and Production Traits" Pathogens 10, no. 2: 234. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020234

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