Unfinished Decriminalization: The Impact of Section 19 of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 on Migrant Sex Workers’ Rights and Lives in Aotearoa New Zealand
1. Introduction: Method and Context of This Study
2. Actions by Immigration New Zealand Affecting the Research
3. The 2003 PRA Legislation
- safeguards the human rights of sex workers and protects them from exploitation:
- promotes the welfare and occupational health and safety of sex workers:
- is conducive to public health:
- prohibits the use in prostitution of persons under 18 years of age:
- implements certain other related reforms”.
4. Migrant’s Understandings and Experiences of Exploitation and Trafficking
“The bosses here were not good. The last time a boss stole NZ$13,000 from me. They told me they would send it back by Western Union while I was on holiday, but they didn’t. They kept it all themselves. They told me I would not be able to complain as I would be deported. They eventually gave me back $7000 with the help of NZPC and my friends, but there is still $6000 that they have not given back. That is also another thing I am here for, to talk to Jenny about that, and how to get it back.”
“We can be deported, so not really. People can use that against us, and we can’t go to the police if something bad happens, even if not at the shop [brothel].”
“It happens a lot in hospo [hospitality industry] – not paying people properly, shifts 10 or 12 h long, or more, yet not paying properly, only paying for 8 h, not the hours worked. Often people don’t know what the rules are and what the laws are around work. So they are underpaying, and often the students or young person won’t complain because they don’t know about the rules. Call backs, with only 4 h in between. Employers asking if someone can do a shift, then when asked what time they would finish, the worker is told “I guess you don’t need the money then”, with the employer expecting you to be available at all times, all the time”.
“We can only work 20 h a week, yet this not enough money for rent, food. I decided myself to start this work, but after talking with friend and thinking a lot about it. Maybe thinking about it for 2 weeks before actually starting it. … I came myself. No one force me here to or to do this here except me.”
Interviewer: “What does exploitation mean for you in your work? How could the situation be improved?”Joanna: “Not sure of the question, maybe being forced when you not want to? I’m having to force myself to work just now, not because of anyone here, but because of visa stuff.”
“Makes heart feel bad, period cramps when I not had before, feel shame, feel bad all over. Not able to sleep properly.”
Interviewer: “What does ‘trafficking’ mean for you? Can you give me a definition?”Joanna: “Some people want to earn money from a lady, and force her to work against her will, make her change countries. When I was very young – they tell us in school in Thailand. It’s also in newspapers, and on TV in Thailand, and airports, all the time. (…) The ladies just want to earn money. No idea. For me, no. For these other ladies here, no. I think most just do it. I think they only want to earn money for themselves.”Joanna’s understanding of trafficking and of herself as a non-victim is representative of the majority of research participants, who had clear ideas about what the concept refers to, as the following quote from the interview with Sasha, a 32-year-old cis woman from Eastern Europe, also shows:Interviewer: “Do you feel that you have been trafficked?”Sasha: “No. I did my research, I spoke with people before starting, I wasn’t forced, except for the fact I needed money, but we all need money so we could all say we are forced to work, but I wasn’t forced to do this job. I wasn’t coerced, I wasn’t forced. I wasn’t detained or sent somewhere by anyone, I wasn’t misled or told lies about what this job is about. I chose this job, nobody made me do this”.
- Moving between places (countries, states);
- Without the person’s consent or knowledge, or through use of fraud; and
- Being forced to do work they did not want to do, such as sex work, but not limited to sex work.
5. Impact of s19 of the 2003 PRA Law
5.1. Fear of Deportation
“No, I’m thankful I haven’t had any experience with the police. I would not want them knowing what I do. I would not want them to be able to let Immigration know what I do. I want to finish my three months and be able to come back if I want.”“I do not think I would contact the police though if something went wrong, even if it wasn’t at work, because I do not want them knowing what I do as I think they may tell Immigration, and I do not want them to know as I may get deported.”
“When I work in the motel, I always shut the curtains tightly, so no one can see in and I don’t let people know who I am … I would only leave the motel to go shopping at night, so it was harder for others to see me. As an escort girl, we are very stressed because of the laws. It’s very scary to walk along the main road in case we are seen by Police or Immigration. I always put my head down. Then when I sometimes hear the police car, or radio, and I’m always very scared and nervous, in case I am caught by them. And sometimes I get a client who is very rough, they cannot cum, so they get very angry, so it’s easier and safer to refund them the money in case they call police. We escort girls who are immigrants are always scared that the person who has PR, they say that they will “call Immigration who will catch you”. We always say a migrant escort girl is always suffering because of this. They bully us, but we can’t fight back because they can call police or immigration any time and have us thrown out of the country.”
5.2. Potential for Sexual Violation through Blackmail
“The first time something bad happened here, I was in H., and this guy said he had the images from my web advert, and that I was working illegally from a hotel in H. Apparently, they have a bylaw there that says you can’t work in hotels or motels10, but most private people do if they are touring. At the time I had a face pic on my advert, so that came off pretty quickly. He said he had friends working in Immigration and would tell them what I did and give them my images, and advert, if I didn’t do what he told me. I was too shocked, freaked right out, at the time to think properly, so I just did it, and afterwards I was too scared to go to the police to report it, just in case I did get deported or even charged under that bylaw”.
“I was in a motel in N., and I’d just had a client, then I also had another client text me, as my advert says text only, but because I’d just had a client, and wanted some time to relax, I said no. The next text he’s saying I’m in room such and such, describing me. He must have seen me in reception and been there at the same time, so he was probably in the same hotel. It was really creepy. I told him my mother was a kiwi and I was travelling on a kiwi passport. I’m just glad I was able to think quick enough to say that. I checked out the next morning and went somewhere else.”
“The motel owner and housekeeping, they cut all the tape off my body, and they wanted to call the police. I begged them not to, as I was not a resident.”
“One of my other friends called and said there were a lot of police in R. as they had found my friend who lent me her phone. That friend asked me to come out to R. She said the police said they wanted to find me to help me … My friends said I must come out to R., explain all this, and I said “Yes, I go out and surrender”. I ask my friend to take me to one hotel, but then also took a taxi to the R. one. Already my friend from B. was in the police car. I asked the taxi driver to carry my luggage down, and I told the Police I come to surrender. I spoke to a lady police officer, and she tell me she want to help me and ask why I brought my luggage. I said “You catch my friend, I come to surrender”. The lady police officer tell me to come to police car, and we talk in car, and I told them to let my friend go before I get in the police car.”
“I tried to find my friend at the shop [brothel], but she no longer wanted to be my friend as I have police phone and police will be able to trace it and find where the call is going to. (…) I said I never told the police anything about them, but the police had only helped me see a doctor for treatment. My friends told everyone else not to get involved with this (omitted as potentially leading to identification) girl as she has gone to the police and has a police phone. They didn’t understand about what had happened, and they still think Police are not good.”
“…view remains that actually if you say that sex work is open to migrant workers that actually creates an incentive to traffic people to New Zealand. And, and, and I can say, from our point of view, it is working well to achieve the outcomes that were intended with that legislation. It is focused on harm reduction, and we have next to no evidence of trafficking of people to New Zealand to work in the sex industry …” (Radio New Zealand 2020, time 2:56–3:29).
5.3. Inappropriate Policing Procedures
“He used photos taken from the work website, photos of me naked, which was not good.”
5.4. Health Concerns
“I am worried about seeing doctors—worried about being found out. I have only been to NZPC and Wellington Sexual Health for check-ups. I have tourist insurance, travel insurance, so I can go to other clinics, but I would never reveal any sex work involvement in case I was deported. I don’t think I would go to the police either, if someone was violent against me while I was at work, or committed some other crime against me while I was at work, in case the police reported it to immigration and I was deported. So yes, these two things, they maybe have some impact on my health.”
“I will be going back to China soon as my parents will meet me, so I won’t need to do any medical stuff here. I will do it all back in China.”
“I went to the nurse at NZPC first, but she told me not an STI, but concerned about how hot I was, so I went to … Emergency Clinic [After Hours Clinic] for prescription, but also they were really concerned about me, and sent me to the hospital for ED [Emergency Department], they wanted me to stay for the morning, but I was worried about cost, and so I left after they said my temperature had started to come down. Also when there, I had the information sheet about this interview in my bag from NZPC, so I took it out and (demonstrated ripping it up) and threw it in the bin. Not the bin beside me, but someone else. I didn’t want them to find out I was doing this job as I might get into trouble with Immigration.”
6. Conclusions: Unfinished Decriminalization
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Aotearoa is the indigenous Maori name for New Zealand, and means Land of the Long White Cloud.
Our interview with Catherine Healy, the founder and National coordinator of Aotearoa New Zealand Sex Workers’ Collective (NZPC) shows that the section that was to become s19 of the PRA was added against the advice of the NZPC and the then Minister of Immigration, Lianne Dalziel would not discuss the matter with the NZPC, who had highlighted the vulnerability of both street sex workers and migrant sex workers if they were excluded from the protections offered by the PRA.
A Small Owner-Operated Brothel (SOOB) is a place where a sex worker can operate independently by themselves or with up to 3 others so long as no one person is in charge, and all manage their own sex work. The New Zealand model requires operators to have operator’s certificates, even if in charge of only one sex worker. Sex workers in charge of their own sex work while working in a SOOB of 4 or less people do not need to apply for an operator’s certificate. If one person was in charge, it would cease to be a SOOB and that person would require an Operator’s Certificate. S19 of the PRA states that any person on a temporary visa or a permanent resident may not be a brothel operator, and if caught faces deportation.
In KZ (Skilled Migrant) v Benson  NZIPT 205601 (21 January 2020): Immigration New Zealand declined KZ’s residence application because it considered that her offer of employment as a graphic designer was not genuine as: (a) the employer offered a substantial increase in pay without adequate explanation. (b) the employer kept the job offer open for an extended time. (c) KZ did not apply for a work visa, and (d) KZ did not demonstrate she had an offer of full-time employment. It was not because of her type of employment, but because of other reasons she was declined. This contrasts with MSWs who are deported solely because of their involvement in sex work.
Hospitality continues to be an accepted occupation for migrants despite a significant number of employment cases showing a large amount of exploitation within the sector, i.e., Gate Gourmet New Zealand Limited v Sandhu  NZEmpC 237 (21 December 2020) http://www.nzlii.org/cgi-bin/sinodisp/nz/cases/NZEmpC/2020/237.html last accessed 1 May 2021; Labour Inspector of the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment v Shah Enterprise NZ Limited  NZERA 505 (7 December 2020) http://www.nzlii.org/cgi-bin/sinodisp/nz/cases/NZERA/2020/505.html last accessed 1 May 2021. These are two examples from December 2020 alone.
Episode 1 of Series 9 (broadcast on 20 June 2017) shows a young Brazilian woman being questioned by customs, who find condoms, lube and a sex toy in her possession, assume she is a sex worker and apply pressure through questions before handing her over to an INZ agent who obtains a confession. During the introduction to the programme, there is a short clip from her interview with customs where she is asked “for a 30-min massage, how much money do you charge?” Although others are also in the introduction, the questions shown regard contraband—food, alcohol, and cigarettes—rather than occupational questions. The other group identified by occupation is a group of Ukrainian fishermen. However, they are not questioned because of their occupation, but because they arrived on a charter flight and in relation to contraband cigarettes and alcohol, which were found on one of the fishermen. An elderly Asian couple are also pulled aside on camera, but this is because they indicated they had food in their luggage, not because of their occupation—suspected or real.
When the PRA was passed, people on Permanent Residency Visas could operate brothels. The change to exclude them was made in 2010 following an amendment to the (Immigration Act 2009).
There are 3 types of minimum wage in NZ—adult, starting-out and training. The adult minimum wage is currently NZ$18.90 an hour before tax if you’re 16 years or older. The minimum wage increases once a year. During the course of this study, the minimum wage varied from NZ$15.75ph in April 2017 to NZ$17.70ph https://www.employment.govt.nz/hours-and-wages/pay/minimum-wage/minimum-wage-rates/ last accessed 1 May 2021.
According to the 2000 UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children which was signed in Palermo, Italy, in 2000 ‘trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation’.
This city has one of the most restrictive bylaws in New Zealand. Sex work may only take place within a specific area, an area that has shrunk with each review of the bylaw. Despite no street-based sex work occurring they stated in the bylaw that street-based sex work was not allowed. The bylaw also states that sex work may not take place in a hotel or motel “unless the agreement occurred elsewhere”. Breaches of the bylaw incur a fine of up to NZ$20,000.
- Abel, Gillian, and Michael Roguski. 2018. Migrant Sex Workers in New Zealand: Report for the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. Christchurch, (NZ): University of Otago, Available online: https://www.nzpc.org.nz//pdfs/Abel,-G-and-Roguski,-M,-(2018),-Migrant-sex-workers-in-NZ-report-for-MBIE.pdf (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Abel, Gillian, Lisa Fitzgerald, and Cheryl Brunton. 2007. The Impact of the Prostitution Reform Act on the Health and Safety Practices of Sex Workers: Report to the Prostitution Law Review Committee. Christchurch: Otago University, Available online: http://www.otago.ac.nz/christchurch/otago018607.pdf (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Armstrong, Lynzi. 2018. New Zealand. In Global Alliance Against the Trafficking of Women. Edited by Sex Workers Organising for Change: Self-Representation, Community Mobilisation and Working Conditions. Bangkok: GAATW International Secretariat, Available online: http://www.gaatw.org/publications/SWorganising/SWorganising-complete-web.pdf (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Bateman, Sophie, and Emma Hurley. 2018. Immigration Admits Underreporting Migrant Sex Work Complaints, Newshub. May 1. Available online: https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2018/05/immigration-admits-underreporting-migrant-sex-work-complaints.html (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Bravo, Karen E. 2009. Free Labor! A Labor Liberalization Solution to Modern Trafficking in Humans. Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems 18: 545–16. Available online: https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/bitstream/handle/1805/24119/Free%20Labor%20A%20Labor%20Liberalization%20Solution%20to%20Modern%20Trafficking%20in%20Humans.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed on 1 May 2021).
- British Library. n.d. The Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885. In Collection Items. London: British Library, Available online: https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/the-criminal-law-amendment-act-1885 (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Cheng, Sealing, and Eunjung Kim. 2014. The paradoxes of neoliberalism: Migrant Korean sex workers in the United States and ‘sex trafficking’. Social Politics 21: 355–81. Available online: https://academic.oup.com/sp/article-abstract/21/3/355/2259017 (accessed on 1 May 2021). [CrossRef]
- Dalton, Bronwyn, and Kyungja Jung. 2019. Becoming cosmopolitan women while negotiating structurally limited choices: The case of Korean migrant sex workers in Australia. Organization 26: 355–370. Available online: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1350508418812554 (accessed on 3 March 2021). [CrossRef]
- Ditmore, Melissa, and Marjan Wijers. 2003. The negotiations on the UN protocol on trafficking in persons. Nemesis 4: 79–88. Available online: https://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/6%20The%20negotiations%20on%20the%20UN%20Protocol%20(NEMESIS).pdf (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Doezema, Jo. 2010. Who Gets to Choose? Coercion, Consent, and the UN Trafficking Protocol, Gender and Development. 2002, Vol. 10, Issue 1: Trafficking and Slavery. Available online: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13552070215897 (accessed on 1 May 2021).
- Eder, Jennifer. 2019. Escort Abducted and Raped in Blenheim Motel Room, Stuff.co.nz. September 17. Available online: https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/crime/115847312/escort-abducted-and-raped-in-blenheim-motel-room (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Fehrenbacher, Anne E., Jennifer Musto, Heidi Hoefinger, Nicola Mai, P. G. Macioti, Calogero Giametta, and Calum Bennachie. 2020. Transgender people and human trafficking: intersectional exclusion of transgender migrants and people of color from anti-trafficking protection in the United States. Journal of Human Trafficking 6: 182–194. Available online: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23322705.2020.1690116?journalCode=uhmt20 (accessed on 3 March 2021). [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Fraser, Cleo. 2018. Immigration NZ Accused of Racial Profiling after Data Pilot Program Unearthed, Newshub. April 5. Available online: https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2018/04/immigration-nz-accused-of-racial-profiling-after-data-pilot-program-unearthed.html (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Gee, Samantha. 2019. Migrant Workers in Top of the South Deported, Stuff.co.nz. November 11. Available online: https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/crime/117188869/migrant-sex-workers-in-top-of-the-south-deported (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Greenstone TV. 2017. Border Control, TVNZ. June 20. Available online: https://www.tvnz.co.nz/shows/border-patrol/episodes/s9-e1 (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Ham, Julie. 2017. Sex Work, Immigration and Social Difference. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Hoefinger, Heidi, Jennifer Musto, P. G. Macioti, Anne E. Fehrenbacher, Nicola Mai, Calum Bennachie, and Calogero Giametta. 2020. Community-Based Responses to Negative Health Impacts of Sexual Humanitarian Anti-Trafficking Policies and the Criminalization of Sex Work and Migration in the US’. Social Sciences 9: 1. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/9/1/1 (accessed on 3 March 2021). [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Howard, Neil. 2020. What Is Exploitation Anyway? Open Democracy: Beyond Trafficking and Slavery. Available online: https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/beyond-trafficking-and-slavery/what-exploitation-anyway/ (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Immigration Act. 2009. 2009 No51. Available online: http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2009/0051/latest/whole.html (accessed on 1 May 2021).
- Jackson, Moana. 2020. Where to next? Decolonisation and stories in the land. In Imagining Decolonisation. Edited by Bianca Elkington, Moana Jackson, Rebecca Kiddle, Ocean Ripeka Mercier, Mike Ross, Jennie Smeaton and Amanda Thomas. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books. [Google Scholar]
- Kempadoo, Kamala. 2001. Women of Color and the Global Sex Trade: Transnational Feminist Perspectives. Meridians 12: 28–51. Available online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40338451?seq=1 (accessed on 3 March 2021). [CrossRef]
- Lam, Elene, and Annalee Lepp. 2019. Butterfly: Resisting the harms of anti-trafficking policies and fostering peer-based organising in Canada. Anti-Trafficking Review 12: 91–107. Available online: https://www.antitraffickingreview.org/index.php/atrjournal/article/view/379 (accessed on 3 March 2021). [CrossRef]
- Macioti, P.G., Eurydice Aroney, Calum Bennachie, Anne E. Fehrenbacher, Calogera Giametta, and Jennifer Musto. 2020. Framing the Mother Tac. The Gendered, Sexualised and Racialised Politics of Modern Slavery in Australia. Social Sciences 9: 192. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/9/11/192 (accessed on 18 May 2021).
- Mai, Nicola. 2018. Mobile Orientations. An Intimate Autoethnography of Migration, Sex Work and Humanitarian Borders. Chicago: Chicago University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Mai, Nicola, P. G. Macioti, Calum Bennachie, Anne E. Fehrenbacher, Calogera Giametta, Heidi Hoefinger, and Jennifer Musto. 2021. The Racialised Bordering Politics of Sexual Humanitarianism: Migration, Sex Work and Trafficking. Ethnic and Racial Studies. Ethnic and Racial Studies. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McCann, Mitch. 2019. Revealed: Hundreds of Suspected Sex Workers Stopped at NZ Border, Newshub. June 5. Available online: https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2019/06/revealed-hundreds-of-suspected-sex-workers-stopped-at-nz-border.html (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Mercier, Ocean Ripeka. 2020. What is Decolonisation? In Imagining Decolonisation. Edited by Bianca Elkington, Moana Jackson, Rebecca Kiddle, Ocean Ripeka Mercier, Mike Ross, Jennie Smeaton and Amanda Thomas. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books. [Google Scholar]
- Musto, Jennifer, Anne E. Fehrenbacher, Heidi Hoefinger, Nicola Mai, P.G. Macioti, Calum Bennachie, Calogera Giametta, and Kate D’Adamo. 2021. AntiTrafficking in the Time of FOSTA/SESTA: Networked Moral Gentrification and Sexual Humanitarian Creep. Social Sciences 10: 58. Available online: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/10/2/58 (accessed on 3 March 2021). [CrossRef]
- O’Connell Davidson, Julia. 2005. Children in the Global Sex Trade. Cambridge: Polity Press. [Google Scholar]
- Prostitution Law Review Committee. 2008. Report of the Prostitution Law Review Committee on the Operation of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003. Wellington: Government Print. [Google Scholar]
- Prostitution Reform Act. 2003. 2003 No28. Available online: http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2003/0028/latest/whole.html (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Radio New Zealand. 2020. Alice Snedden’s Bad News: Episode 1—Migrant Sex Workers. Wellington: Government Print, Available online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n67lgR2R58k (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Roguski, Michael. 2013. Occupational Health and Safety of Migrant Sex Workers in New Zealand. Wellington: Kaitiaki Research, Available online: http://www.communityresearch.org.nz/research/occupational-safety-and-health-of-migrant-sex-workers-in-new-zealand/ (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Segrave, Marie, Sanja Milivojevic, and Sharon Pickering. 2009. Sex Trafficking. International Context and Response. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. [Google Scholar]
- Selvey, Linda A., Roanna C. Lobo, Kahlia L. McCausland, Basil Donovan, Julie Bates, and Jonathan Hallett. 2018. Challenges facing Asian sex workers in Western Australia: implications for health promotion and support services. Frontiers in Public Health 6: 171. Available online: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29951477/ (accessed on 18 May 2021). [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Tan, Lincoln. 2013. Prostitutes kept out despite visa, New Zealand Herald. June 5. Available online: https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1andobjectid=10888451 (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Tan, Lincoln. 2018a. Human Trafficking: Lured Migrant Face Dark Reality, New Zealand Herald. April 16. Available online: https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1andobjectid=12021043 (accessed on 18 May 2021).
- Tan, Lincoln. 2018b. NZ Sex Workers Lodge Complaints over Foreign Prostitute Website Advertisements, New Zealand Herald. April 22. Available online: https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1andobjectid=12037429 (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Tan, Lincoln. 2018c. Illegal Workers Access Million-Dollar Taxpayer-Funded Health Programme, New Zealand Herald. May 31. Available online: https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1andobjectid=12061215 (accessed on 1 May 2021).
- Tichenor, Erin G. 2019. [De] Criminalization: Social Control, Agency, and Intersectionality in Auckland’s Sex Industry. Thinking Gender Papers. April 1. Available online: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/1nb0d1rn (accessed on 1 May 2021).
- Timmins, Michael. 2020. Settlement on Sexual Harassment Proceedings, Scoop. December 14. Available online: https://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/PO2012/S00119/settlement-on-sexual-harassment-proceedings.htm (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Ting, David. 2018. Understanding the Experiences of Migrant Asian Sex Workers in New Zealand: An Exploratory Study. Master’s Thesis, Auckland University, Auckland, New Zealand. Available online: https://www.nzpc.org.nz//pdfs/Ting,-D,-(2018),-Understanding-the-experiences-of-migrant-Asian-sex-workers-in-New-Zealand-An-exploratory-study.-MA-Thesis.pdf (accessed on 1 May 2021).
- Trevett, Claire. 2018. Minister Tells Immigration NZ to Suspend Migrant Risk Factor Data Modelling Programme Amid Racial Profiling Claims, New Zealand Herald. April 9. Available online: https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/minister-tells-immigration-nz-to-suspend-migrant-risk-factor-data-modelling-programme-amid-racial-profiling-claims/WVZU56CQBEUK5YZN4UJDUGL3SA/ (accessed on 1 May 2021).
- United Nations. 2018. United Nations Committee on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Concluding Observations on the Eighth Periodic Report of New Zealand, CEDAW/C/NZL/CO/8. Geneva: United Nations. Available online: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsqMFgv33OTgoZv7ZAgL6thAQ9IftfPs3g9t3r4w6hFnRBqTwEr%2biim0%2bsAlJpAatSmEIaiBa2tDiXsJJkM5ckb8X%2btUaeYYYiJ63zQJJg6JG (accessed on 3 March 2021). Concluding Observations on the Eighth Periodic Report of New Zealand, CEDAW/C/NZL/CO/8.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Bennachie, C.; Pickering, A.; Lee, J.; Macioti, P.G.; Mai, N.; Fehrenbacher, A.E.; Giametta, C.; Hoefinger, H.; Musto, J. Unfinished Decriminalization: The Impact of Section 19 of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 on Migrant Sex Workers’ Rights and Lives in Aotearoa New Zealand. Soc. Sci. 2021, 10, 179. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10050179
Bennachie C, Pickering A, Lee J, Macioti PG, Mai N, Fehrenbacher AE, Giametta C, Hoefinger H, Musto J. Unfinished Decriminalization: The Impact of Section 19 of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 on Migrant Sex Workers’ Rights and Lives in Aotearoa New Zealand. Social Sciences. 2021; 10(5):179. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10050179Chicago/Turabian Style
Bennachie, Calum, Annah Pickering, Jenny Lee, P. G. Macioti, Nicola Mai, Anne E. Fehrenbacher, Calogero Giametta, Heidi Hoefinger, and Jennifer Musto. 2021. "Unfinished Decriminalization: The Impact of Section 19 of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003 on Migrant Sex Workers’ Rights and Lives in Aotearoa New Zealand" Social Sciences 10, no. 5: 179. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10050179