From Maslow to Architectural Spaces: The Assessment of Reusing Old Industrial Buildings
2. Reviewing Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
3. Construction of an Assessment Framework
3.1. Basic Needs
3.1.1. Physiological Needs
- Air environment
3.1.2. Safety Needs
- Construction design
3.1.3. Summary of the Items Used to Measure the Provision for Basic Needs
3.2. Advanced Needs
3.2.1. Socializing Needs
3.2.2. Esteem Needs
3.2.3. Summary of the Items Used to Measure the Provision for Advanced Needs
3.3. Challenging Needs
3.3.1. Needs of Historical Culture
3.3.2. Needs of Hybrid Culture
- Visual integration
- Innovative culture
3.3.3. Summary of the Items Used to Measure the Provision for Challenging Needs
3.4. Assessment Framework Output
4. Application of the Assessment Framework
4.1. An Overview of the Principles of the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method
4.2. Survey and Statistics
4.3. Analysis and Discussion
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Physiological needs||Are the ventilation, temperature, and humidity in the building within a comfortable range?|
Is there an HVAC system in the building?
Is the building equipped with the appropriate number of toilets and are they easy to find?
Are the building’s toilets clean, and does the water supply work?
Is there a convenience store in or around the building and does it sell items for daily emergencies, such as drinks, snacks, fast food, tissue paper, chargers, and so on?
|Safety needs||Is there a security officer in the building?|
Is there a CCTV system in the building?
Are the firefighting facilities (e.g., fire hydrants, sprinkler systems) in the building up to current codes and best practices?
Does the fire escape design (e.g., escape stairs, escape distance) in the building meet the building code?
Are the building’s easily damaged elements regularly maintained?
Are the floors, stairs, hand-railings, and other elements of the building safe for users?
Are there suitable warnings about safety hazards such as crashes, falls, graze, and so on?
|Socializing needs||Are there areas within the project that offer relaxation (e.g., coffee, tea bars, lounge areas)?|
Are there any behavioral activities evident, for example, exercise, chatting, picnics, and so on?
Is there an information desk, patrolling staff, or volunteers?
Is the attitude of the service staff welcoming?
Are there regular or irregular community events for the public?
|Esteem needs||Is there a good gender balance of users?|
Is it used by people of different ages and ethnic groups?
Are there barrier-free designs, such as lifts and ramps, to make wheelchair access possible?
Are there barrier-free toilets and a nursing room(s)?
Does the project provide free assistive devices for special groups (e.g., wheelchairs, hearing aids, prams)?
Is there a layout map in the building? Are the maps comprehensive, clear, and easy to understand?
Is there any clear signage in the building (e.g., smoking, warning signs, exit signs, visit descriptions)?
|Cultural needs||Are there any preserved material industrial elements, and are these easy to find?|
Do the material industrial elements have historical value?
Is there information about the important industrial elements, or an official website with relevant descriptions?
Can users associate with the industrial scene of the past from these material industrial elements?
Does the building use its industrial background and heritage to attract visitors?
Will the project achieve local recognition in a short time?
|Index bed of basic needs U1|
|Physiological needs||Air environment quality u11|
|Convenience store u13|
|Safety needs||Security u14|
|Fire and escape u15|
|Building components u16|
|Index bed of advanced needs U2|
|Socializing needs||Rest and activity areas u21|
|Visitor enquiries u22|
|Activity organization u23|
|Esteem needs||Diverse users u24|
|Facilities for special groups u25|
|Map and signage u26|
|Index bed of challenging needs U3|
|Cultural needs||Preservation of historical industrial elements u31|
|Transmission of historical culture u32|
|Integration of ‘old and new’ u33|
|Basic Needs R1||Perfect||Very Good||Good||Satisfactory||Unsatisfactory|
|Air environment quality u11||87.2||0||1.6||0||11.2|
|Convenience store u13||50||0||0||50||0|
|Fire and escape u15||0||50||0||25||25|
|Building components u16||25||25||0||50||0|
|Advanced Needs R2|
|Rest and activity areas u21||100||0||0||0||0|
|Visitor enquiries u22||0||25||0||50||25|
|Activity organization u23||0||70||30||0||0|
|Diverse users u24||33.4||0||33.3||33.3||0|
|Facilities for special groups u25||0||25||50||25|
|Map and signage u26||0||20||20||60|
|Challenging Needs R3|
|Preservation of historical industrial elements u31||100||0||0||0||0|
|Transmission of historical culture u32||0||0||0||12.5||87.5|
|Integration of ‘old and new’ u33||0||50||50||0||0|
|Basic Needs R1||Weight||Perfect||Very Good||Good||Satisfactory||Unsatisfactory|
|Air environment quality u11||16.77%||87.2||0||1.6||0||11.2|
|Convenience store u13||12.38%||50||0||0||50||0|
|Fire and escape u15||19.36%||0||50||0||25||25|
|Building components u16||17.96%||25||25||0||50||0|
|Advanced Needs R2|
|Rest and activity areas u21||16.20%||100||0||0||0||0|
|Visitor enquiries u22||16.20%||0||25||0||50||25|
|Activity organization u23||15.33%||0||70||30||0||0|
|Diverse users u24||16.20%||33.4||0||33.3||33.3||0|
|Facilities for special groups u25||18.36%||0||25||50||25|
|Map and signage u26||17.71%||0||20||20||60|
|Challenging Needs R3|
|Preservation of historical industrial elements u31||23.95%||100||0||0||0||0|
|Transmission of historical culture u32||24.85%||0||0||0||12.5||87.5|
|Integration of ‘old and new’ u33||25.45%||0||50||50||0||0|
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Zheng, X.; Heath, T.; Guo, S. From Maslow to Architectural Spaces: The Assessment of Reusing Old Industrial Buildings. Buildings 2022, 12, 2033. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112033
Zheng X, Heath T, Guo S. From Maslow to Architectural Spaces: The Assessment of Reusing Old Industrial Buildings. Buildings. 2022; 12(11):2033. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112033Chicago/Turabian Style
Zheng, Xuesen, Timothy Heath, and Sifan Guo. 2022. "From Maslow to Architectural Spaces: The Assessment of Reusing Old Industrial Buildings" Buildings 12, no. 11: 2033. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112033