# Performance of the Steel Fibre Reinforced Rigid Concrete Pavement in Fatigue

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Specimen Preparation

^{3}. The bulk oxide composition is listed in Table 1.

^{3}and 80 kg/m

^{3}). Table 4 below summarises the specimen designations and variables of each batch of slabs produced for this study, with a total of six batches of rigid pavement specimens produced.

## 3. Experimental Program

#### 3.1. Preliminary Fatigue Investigation and Testing

#### 3.2. Absorption

#### 3.3. Compressive and Indirect Tensile Strength

#### 3.4. Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD)

## 4. Results and Discussion

#### 4.1. Material Properties

#### 4.2. Fatigue Testing

#### 4.3. Energy Dissipation

_{i}is the dissipated energy at each cycle; ϕ is the phase angle of each cycle; W

_{t}is the total dissipated energy of the fatigue test; f is the frequency of the load exerted; s is the time lag between load at midspan and the deflection at midspan is recorded.

^{3}in total and average 513 J/m

^{3}per cycle. The lack of reinforcements providing tensile resistance in M-00 led to the highest energy dissipation in each cycle for the unreinforced specimens. It is believed that this is the reason that unreinforced pavement specimens failed rapidly, with lower fatigue cycles compared to the reinforced specimens in this study. This can be explained by the fact that the concrete was fully cracked at the first few cycles in 4PB. Then, the concrete could not provide sufficient flexural tensile strength due to the reduction in the effective depth of the section from the cracks extending into the section. This led to lower section modulus value that reduces the load applied to maintain the constant strain as the fatigue test was conducted with strain-controlled testing. Hence, it is believed that a relatively significant amount of microcracks was formed in unreinforced rigid pavement specimens in each cycle compared to reinforced specimens that led to the highest value in energy dissipated per cycle in this study.

^{3}, which is the lowest among the reinforced specimens. For the 0.5% fibre volume fraction specimens, M-40 and S-40 specimens showed an increasing amount of total dissipated energy, with the total dissipated energy calculated as 51,259,250 J/m

^{3}and 63,446,250 J/m

^{3}throughout the entire fatigue test conducted. Finally, the M-80 and S-80 specimens with 1.0% fibre volume fractions were found to have 75,375,200 J/m

^{3}and 74,340,333 J/m

^{3}of total dissipated energy.

^{3}per cycle. In comparison to the completely unreinforced M-00 specimens, the specimens produced with only longitudinal bars in the unreinforced concrete matrix were shown to have a significant reduction in average energy dissipated in each cycle. However, the addition of steel fibres into the concrete matrix also led to a further reduction in the average energy dissipation in each cycle of fatigue testing. The pure steel fibre reinforced M-40 and M-80 were able to reduce the average cyclic energy dissipation to 144 J/m

^{3}per cycle and 125 J/m

^{3}per cycle, respectively. With 0.5% and 1.0% volume fraction in longitudinally reinforced pavement specimens, the energy dissipated per cycle further declined to an average of 105 J/m

^{3}per cycle and 111 J/m

^{3}per cycle. Based on the results of this study, the hybrid reinforced thin rigid concrete pavements were able to provide the most optimal fatigue performance. It is known that the heat energy dissipation and fracture energy of material under fatigue loading is generally constant [2,40], but the observations found in this study suggest that the energy dissipation from damage is not constant as the type of reinforcement used and fibre dosage has a noticeable effect on the dissipated energy from fracture.

#### 4.4. Apparent Volume of Permeable Voids (AVPV)

## 5. Discussion and Analysis of the Results

## 6. Conclusions

- The scaled-down, strain-based approach to 4PB fatigue testing of rigid pavements is deemed to be suitable as it demonstrated the behaviour of both reinforced and unreinforced concrete pavements under fatigue. The methodology proposed is suitable to assess the fatigue performance of both plain concrete and fibre reinforced concrete thin pavements. The fatigue life of the concrete pavements correlates with the energy dissipation obtained in this study with the data collected on the various specimens in this study.
- Hybrid reinforcement of both steel fibres and steel reinforcements were found to be the most optimal reinforcement to maximise the service life of concrete rigid pavements in fatigue loading. This is due to the tensile stresses of specimens loaded in cyclic flexural able to be redistributed between the steel fibres and steel reinforcement to reduce the formation of microcracks. Therefore, this further reduced the loss of stiffness modulus and increase fatigue cycles.
- The fracture energy in the total energy dissipated does not remain constant for a different combination of reinforcements applied in the concrete pavements. The addition of steel fibres, longitudinal steel or both has an impact on the energy dissipated in each cycle of concrete specimens under fatigue testing. Hybrid reinforced specimens with both fibres and bars have the lowest energy dissipation per cycle.
- In comparison to plain concrete, the use of steel fibres without conventional reinforcements in concrete rigid pavement were also shown to have significant improvements in the fatigue resistance of the pavements. The addition of steel fibres in concrete pavements has resulted in at least a 135% increase in fatigue cycles compared to the fatigue cycles of plain concrete. This demonstrates the effectiveness of fibres in plain concrete under fatigue as fibres provide crack bridging to control the cracks formed.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 4.**Trial test of rigid pavement at 75 microstrains, 123 microstrains, 140 microstrains and 160 microstrains.

**Figure 5.**Stiffness modulus of the rigid pavement specimens at the start and the end of the 4PB fatigue tests.

**Figure 6.**Average number of fatigue cycles to the end of the 4PB fatigue tests at either 50% stiffness modulus lost or 1 million cycles limit.

**Figure 8.**Average phase angle at first 100 cycles and termination of rigid pavement specimens tested in 4PB fatigue tests.

**Figure 9.**Typical stress–strain curves of plain concrete (200,200 cycles fatigue life) and fibre reinforced concrete (624,100 cycles fatigue life).

Elemental Oxide | Al_{2}O_{3} | CaO | Fe_{2}O_{3} | MgO | Na_{2}O | SO_{3} | SiO_{2} | LOI |

Portland Cement | 4.7 | 63.8 | 2.8 | 2.0 | 0.5 | 2.5 | 21.1 | 2.1 |

Cement | Water | Coarse Aggregate | Fine Aggregate |
---|---|---|---|

570 | 228 | 811 | 610 |

Length, l (mm) | Diameter, d (mm) | Aspect Ratio, l/d (mm) | Tensile Strength (N/mm^{2}) | Young’s Modulus (N/mm^{2}) |
---|---|---|---|---|

35 | 0.55 | 65 | 1345 | 210,000 |

Specimens | Fibre Volume Fraction (%) | Fibre Content (kg/m^{3}) | Steel Bars Addition |
---|---|---|---|

M-00 | 0.0 | 0.0 | No |

S-00 | 0.0 | 0.0 | Yes |

M-40 | 0.5 | 40 | No |

S-40 | 0.5 | 40 | Yes |

M-80 | 1.0 | 80 | No |

S-80 | 1.0 | 80 | Yes |

**Table 5.**Average compressive strength, tensile strength and residual tensile strength of the OPC concrete.

Fibre Volume Fraction | Compressive Strength (MPa) | Tensile Strength (MPa) | Residual Tensile Strength (MPa) | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

f_{cm} | f’_{c} | f_{ct} | f_{R}_{1} | f_{R}_{2} | f_{R}_{3} | f_{R}_{4} | f_{w} | |

0.0% | 63.1 | 53.8 | 4.2 | Not Applicable | ||||

0.5% | 61.9 | 52.7 | 4.4 | 4.8 | 6.2 | 5.9 | 5.4 | 1.3 |

1.0% | 58.1 | 49.2 | 4.6 | 5.5 | 10.6 | 9.5 | 7.5 | 2.3 |

Fatigue Cycles | Stiffness Loss (%) | Phase Angle at 100 Cycle (°) | Phase Angle at Termination (°) | |
---|---|---|---|---|

M-00 | 151,100 | 50 | 0.73 | 1.53 |

S-00 | 306,800 | 50 | 0.54 | 2.08 |

M-40 | 355,600 | 48 | 0.40 | 1.95 |

S-40 | 604,000 | 39 | 0.63 | 1.47 |

M-80 | 603,000 | 46 | 0.80 | 1.42 |

S-80 | 667,600 | 40 | 0.82 | 1.82 |

Average Total Dissipated Energy (J/m^{3}) | Fatigue Cycles | Average Energy Dissipated per Cycle (J/m^{3} × 10^{3}) | |
---|---|---|---|

M-00 | 77,478,400 | 151,100 | 513 |

S-00 | 40,585,200 | 306,800 | 132 |

M-40 | 51,259,300 | 355,600 | 144 |

S-40 | 63,446,300 | 604,000 | 105 |

M-80 | 75,375,200 | 603,000 | 125 |

S-80 | 74,340,300 | 667,600 | 111 |

M-00 | S-00 | M-40 | S-40 | M-80 | S-80 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Before 4PB (%) | 10.7 | 11.0 | 12.8 | 13.0 | 11.2 | 11.9 |

After 4PB (%) | 12.8 | 13.1 | 14.2 | 14.1 | 12.5 | 13.1 |

Changes in AVPV (%) | 2.1 | 2.1 | 1.3 | 1.1 | 1.3 | 1.2 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lau, C.K.; Chegenizadeh, A.; Htut, T.N.S.; Nikraz, H.
Performance of the Steel Fibre Reinforced Rigid Concrete Pavement in Fatigue. *Buildings* **2020**, *10*, 186.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10100186

**AMA Style**

Lau CK, Chegenizadeh A, Htut TNS, Nikraz H.
Performance of the Steel Fibre Reinforced Rigid Concrete Pavement in Fatigue. *Buildings*. 2020; 10(10):186.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10100186

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lau, Chee Keong, Amin Chegenizadeh, Trevor N. S. Htut, and Hamid Nikraz.
2020. "Performance of the Steel Fibre Reinforced Rigid Concrete Pavement in Fatigue" *Buildings* 10, no. 10: 186.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings10100186