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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Tool Material, Tool Geometry, Process Parameters, Stacking Sequence, and Heat Sink on Producing Sound Al/Cu Lap Joints through Friction Stir Welding

1
College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences & Technology, Topi 23460, Pakistan
3
Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak 32610, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(8), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080875
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Welding Technology in Metals)
The present study was focused on establishing guidelines for successful friction stir welding of Al alloys and Cu lap joints. Detailed investigations in respect to tool geometry, tool material, work-piece material, welding parameters, stacking sequence, and heat sink were carried out. The soundness of welded joints was tested through microscopic analysis and the lap shear test. The results revealed that the tungsten carbide (WC) tool with square-pin produced sound joints in terms of minimized defects and high strength. Further, the use of heat sink proved as an important pre-requisite when the stacking sequence was inversed (i.e., Cu-Al), and this stacking configuration in comparison with the Al-Cu stacking yielded weaker joints. The influence of the tool welding speed (F, mm/min) was found to depend upon the tool material. A range of tool welding speed (23.5–37.5 mm/min) worked well for the WC tool. However, only two values of welding speed (30 mm/min and 37 mm/min) were observed to be conducive when the tool material was HSCo (high-speed cobalt)-steel. Finally, it was concluded to employ the WC tool with square-pin, a welding speed of 30 mm/min, the rotational speed (S, rpm) of 1500 mm/min, and Al-Cu stacking sequence to successfully process the Al/Cu lap joints. View Full-Text
Keywords: friction stir welding; dissimilar metals; temperature; process conditions; guidelines friction stir welding; dissimilar metals; temperature; process conditions; guidelines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wei, H.; Latif, A.; Hussain, G.; Heidarshenas, B.; Altaf, K. Influence of Tool Material, Tool Geometry, Process Parameters, Stacking Sequence, and Heat Sink on Producing Sound Al/Cu Lap Joints through Friction Stir Welding. Metals 2019, 9, 875.

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