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An Efficient Approach for Nitrogen Diffusion and Surface Nitriding of Boron-Titanium Modified Stainless Steel Alloy for Biomedical Applications

Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak 32610, Malaysia
School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H-12, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Mechanical Engineering Department, Universitas PERTAMINA, Jakarta 12220, Indonesia
Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS University, Lahore campus, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Centre of Excellence in Science & Applied Technologies, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bayero University Kano, 700241 Kano, Nigeria
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(7), 755;
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
PDF [6033 KB, uploaded 9 July 2019]


Austenitic 316L stainless steel has been the most widely acceptable biomaterial for producing implants. The downside of this material includes the leaching of nickel ions from the matrix that limits its’ usage in implant manufacturing. In this research, production of stainless steel alloy modified with boron and titanium is investigated. The sintering of the alloy systems is carried out in nitrogen atmosphere for a dwell time of 8 h. The X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that dwell time and alloy composition leads to the formation of strong nitrides and borides. The X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results show the presence of nitrogen on to the surface of sintered specimens. The nitride layer on the surface of the specimens is helpful in the retention of nickel ions in the stainless steel matrix, as indicated in the weight loss measurements. The cytotoxicity assessment indicates that the developed alloys are biocompatible and can be used as implant materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: implant; stainless steel; nickel; leaching; nitrogen; cytotoxicity implant; stainless steel; nickel; leaching; nitrogen; cytotoxicity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ali, S.; Abdul Rani, A.M.; Mufti, R.A.; Hastuty, S.; Hussain, M.; Shehzad, N.; Baig, Z.; Abdu Aliyu, A.A. An Efficient Approach for Nitrogen Diffusion and Surface Nitriding of Boron-Titanium Modified Stainless Steel Alloy for Biomedical Applications. Metals 2019, 9, 755.

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