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Open AccessArticle

Development of a Cr-Ni-V-N Medium Manganese Steel with Balanced Mechanical and Corrosion Properties

Steel Institute (IEHK), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Suez University, 43528 Suez, Egypt
Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute, Microstructure Research (PGI-5), D-52425 Jülich, Germany
Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology E-JUST, New Borg El-Arab City, 21934 Alexandria, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(6), 705;
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Metallurgy of High Manganese Steels)
PDF [3246 KB, uploaded 25 June 2019]


A novel medium manganese (MMn) steel with additions of Cr (18%), Ni (5%), V (1%), and N (0.3%) was developed in order to provide an enhanced corrosion resistance along with a superior strength–ductility balance. The laboratory melted ingots were hot rolled, cold rolled, and finally annealed at 1000 °C for 3 min. The recrystallized single-phase austenitic microstructure consisted of ultrafine grains (~1.3 µm) with a substantial amount of Cr- and V-based precipitates in a bimodal particle size distribution (100–400 nm and <20 nm). The properties of the newly developed austenitic MMn steel X20CrNiMnVN18-5-10 were compared with the standard austenitic stainless steel X5CrNi18-8 and with the austenitic twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel X60MnAl17-1. With a total elongation of 45%, the MMn steel showed an increase in yield strength by 300 MPa and in tensile strength by 150 MPa in comparison to both benchmark steels. No deformation twins were observed even after fracture for the MMn steel, which emphasizes the role of the grain size and precipitation-induced change in the austenite stability in controlling the deformation mechanism. The potentio-dynamic polarization measurements in 5% NaCl revealed a very low current density value of 7.2 × 10−4 mA/cm2 compared to that of TWIP steel X60MnAl17-1 of 8.2 × 10−3 mA/cm2, but it was relatively higher than that of stainless steel X5CrNi18-8 of 2.0 × 10−4 mA/cm2. This work demonstrates that the enhanced mechanical properties of the developed MMn steel are tailored by maintaining an ultrafine grain microstructure with a significant amount of nanoprecipitates, while the high corrosion resistance in 5% NaCl solution is attributed to the high Cr and N contents as well as to the ultrafine grain size. View Full-Text
Keywords: MMn steel X20CrNiMnVN18-5-10; V alloying; corrosion resistance; precipitations; ultrafine grains MMn steel X20CrNiMnVN18-5-10; V alloying; corrosion resistance; precipitations; ultrafine grains

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Allam, T.; Guo, X.; Sevsek, S.; Lipińska-Chwałek, M.; Hamada, A.; Ahmed, E.; Bleck, W. Development of a Cr-Ni-V-N Medium Manganese Steel with Balanced Mechanical and Corrosion Properties. Metals 2019, 9, 705.

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