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Open AccessArticle

Transformation of Inclusions in Solid GCr15 Bearing Steels During Heat Treatment

School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), Beijing 100083, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(6), 642;
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 11 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
PDF [8251 KB, uploaded 3 June 2019]


Laboratory heating experiments with a varied holding time of GCr15 bearing steels at 1498 K were performed to study the transformation of inclusions in solid GCr15 bearing steels during high temperature diffusion processes. Heating experiments at 1573 and 1648 K were also carried out to study the effect of these heating temperatures. Experimental results showed that inclusions transformed from Al2O3-CaO-(MgO) to Al2O3-CaS-(MgO-CaO) when the heat treatment was in the range of 1498 to 1648 K due to reactions between Al and S in the steel matrix and CaO in the inclusions. This is in good agreement with thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, the size of the inclusions hardly changed after heat treatment. The transformation rate of the inclusions depended strongly on both the heating temperature and the size of the inclusions. Kinetic analyses on the transformation of inclusions during heat treatment were performed based on a simplified analytical model. The mass transfer coefficients of CaO and CaS in inclusions were calculated, which ranged from 0.73 × 10−10 to 4.48 × 10−10 m/s. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat treatment; transformation; mass transfer coefficient heat treatment; transformation; mass transfer coefficient

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Cheng, G.; Li, W.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, L. Transformation of Inclusions in Solid GCr15 Bearing Steels During Heat Treatment. Metals 2019, 9, 642.

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