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Electromagnetic Forces in Continuous Casting of Steel Slabs

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1610 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401, USA
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(4), 471;
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Casting)


This paper reviews the current state of the art in the application of electromagnetic forces to control fluid flow to improve quality in continuous casting of steel slabs. Many product defects are controlled by flow-related phenomena in the mold region, such as slag entrapment due to excessive surface velocity and level fluctuations, meniscus hook defects due to insufficient transport of flow and superheat to the meniscus region, and particle entrapment into the solidification front, which depends on transverse flow across the dendritic interface. Fluid flow also affects heat transfer, solidification, and solute transport, which greatly affect grain structure and internal quality of final steel products. Various electromagnetic systems can affect flow, including static magnetic fields and traveling fields which actively accelerate, slow down, or stir the flow in the mold or strand regions. Optimal electromagnetic effects to control flow depends greatly on the caster geometry and other operating conditions. Previous works on how to operate electromagnetic systems to reduce defects are discussed based on results from plant experiments, validated computational models, and lab scale model experiments. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetohydrodynamics; fluid flow; bubbles; inclusions; entrapment; entrainment; heat transfer; solidification; slab mold; continuous casting magnetohydrodynamics; fluid flow; bubbles; inclusions; entrapment; entrainment; heat transfer; solidification; slab mold; continuous casting

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cho, S.-M.; Thomas, B.G. Electromagnetic Forces in Continuous Casting of Steel Slabs. Metals 2019, 9, 471.

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