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Open AccessArticle

Microstructures and Hardness Prediction of an Ultrafine-Grained Al-2024 Alloy

Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Applications of Fujian Province, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024, China
Engineering Materials, School of Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1182;
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 1 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ultrafine-Grained Metals Research)
High-pressure torsion (HPT) is a high efficiency processing method for fabricating bulk ultrafine-grained metallic materials. This work investigates microstructures and evaluates the corresponding strengthening components in the center of HPT disks, where effective shear strains are very low. An Al-4.63Cu-1.51Mg (wt. %) alloy was processed by HPT for 5 rotations. Non-equilibrium grain and sub-grain boundaries were observed using scanning transmission electron microscopy in the center area of HPT disks. Solute co-cluster segregation at grain boundaries was found by energy dispersive spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the average microstrain, crystalline size, and dislocation density were (1.32 ± 0.07) × 10−3, 61.9 ± 1.4 nm, and (2.58 ± 0.07) × 1014 m−2, respectively. The ultra-high average hardness increment was predicted on multiple mechanisms due to ultra-high dislocation densities, grain refinement, and co-cluster–defect complexes. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-pressure torsion; Al-Cu-Mg alloy; solute segregation high-pressure torsion; Al-Cu-Mg alloy; solute segregation
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Chen, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Hu, N.; Gao, N.; Starink, M.J. Microstructures and Hardness Prediction of an Ultrafine-Grained Al-2024 Alloy. Metals 2019, 9, 1182.

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