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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Process Parameters on Residual Stresses, Distortions, and Porosity in Selective Laser Melting of Maraging Steel 300

Centre for Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Central University of Technology, Free State, 20 President Brand Street, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
Laboratory for Advanced Manufacturing, Department of Industrial Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Corner Joubert and Banghoek Street, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(10), 1042;
Received: 23 August 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 25 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Selective Laser Melting)
Selective laser melting (SLM) is one of the most well-known additive manufacturing methods available for the fabrication of functional parts from metal powders. Although SLM is now an established metal additive manufacturing technique, its widespread application in industry is still hindered by inherent phenomena, one of which is high residual stresses. Some of the effects of residual stresses–such as warping and thermal stress-related cracking–cannot be corrected by post processing. Therefore, establishing input process parameter combinations that result in the least residual stress magnitudes and related distortions and/or cracking is critical. This paper presents the influence of laser power, scanning speed, and layer thickness on residual stresses, distortions and achievable density for maraging steel 300 steel parts in order to establish the most optimum input parameter combinations. An analysis of the interdependence between process outcomes shows that high residual stress magnitudes lead to high dimensional distortions in the finished parts, whilst porous parts suffer relatively lower residual stresses and associated distortions. View Full-Text
Keywords: selective laser melting; residual stresses; distortions; porosity selective laser melting; residual stresses; distortions; porosity
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Mugwagwa, L.; Yadroitsev, I.; Matope, S. Effect of Process Parameters on Residual Stresses, Distortions, and Porosity in Selective Laser Melting of Maraging Steel 300. Metals 2019, 9, 1042.

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