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Article

Quantification of Solid Solution Strengthening and Internal Stresses through Creep Testing of Ni-Containing Single Crystals at 980 °C

Metals and Alloys Department, University of Bayreuth, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
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Academic Editor: Evgeny A. Kolubaev
Metals 2021, 11(7), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071130
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 7 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 16 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Superalloys and High Temperature Intermetallics)
Various alloy compositions were cast as single crystals in a Bridgman vacuum induction furnace and creep tested at 980 °C: pure Ni, the equiatomic alloys CoCrNi and CrMnFeCoNi (Cantor alloy), single-phase fcc (Ni) solid solution alloys (with the composition of the matrix-phase of CMSX-3 and CMSX-4), and two-phase Ni-based superalloys CMSX-3 and CMSX-4. Due to the single-crystal state, grain size effects, grain boundary sliding, and grain boundary diffusion can be excluded. The results identify two major strengthening mechanisms: solid solution strengthening and other mechanisms summarized as precipitation hardening. Configurational entropy does not increase creep strength: The Cantor alloy, with the highest configurational entropy of all alloys tested, shows a weak and similar creep strength at 980 °C in comparison to pure Ni with zero configurational entropy. The element Re is a very effective strengthener, both in single-phase fcc (Ni) solid solution alloys as well as in two-phase superalloys. Quantitative estimations of different strengthening mechanisms: internal back stress, misfit stresses, Orowan bowing, and γ′-phase cutting (in the case of two-phase superalloys) are presented. Finite element simulations allow estimating the influence of solid solution strengthening of the matrix on the creep behavior of the two-phase superalloys. View Full-Text
Keywords: superalloy; nickel alloys; creep testing; strengthening mechanisms; precipitation hardening; solid solution strengthening; single crystal; high entropy alloys superalloy; nickel alloys; creep testing; strengthening mechanisms; precipitation hardening; solid solution strengthening; single crystal; high entropy alloys
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MDPI and ACS Style

Glatzel, U.; Schleifer, F.; Gadelmeier, C.; Krieg, F.; Müller, M.; Mosbacher, M.; Völkl, R. Quantification of Solid Solution Strengthening and Internal Stresses through Creep Testing of Ni-Containing Single Crystals at 980 °C. Metals 2021, 11, 1130. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071130

AMA Style

Glatzel U, Schleifer F, Gadelmeier C, Krieg F, Müller M, Mosbacher M, Völkl R. Quantification of Solid Solution Strengthening and Internal Stresses through Creep Testing of Ni-Containing Single Crystals at 980 °C. Metals. 2021; 11(7):1130. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071130

Chicago/Turabian Style

Glatzel, Uwe, Felix Schleifer, Christian Gadelmeier, Fabian Krieg, Moritz Müller, Mike Mosbacher, and Rainer Völkl. 2021. "Quantification of Solid Solution Strengthening and Internal Stresses through Creep Testing of Ni-Containing Single Crystals at 980 °C" Metals 11, no. 7: 1130. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071130

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