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Article

Spatter Formation and Splashing Induced Defects in Laser-Based Powder Bed Fusion of AlSi10Mg Alloy: A Novel Hydrodynamics Modelling with Empirical Testing

1
ERMAKSAN, Bursa 16065, Turkey
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gazi University, Ankara 06570, Turkey
3
Additive Manufacturing Technologies Research and Application Center-EKTAM, Gazi University, Ankara 06560, Turkey
4
National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Ilfov, 077125 Magurele, Romania
5
Manufacturing Technologies Center of Excellence-URTEMM A.S., Ankara 06980, Turkey
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors have participated equally.
Academic Editor: Elena Gordo
Metals 2021, 11(12), 2023; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122023
Received: 9 October 2021 / Revised: 7 December 2021 / Accepted: 10 December 2021 / Published: 14 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Additive Manufacturing Processes and Applications)
Powder spattering and splashing in the melt pool are common phenomena during Laser-based Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) of metallic materials having high fluidity. For this purpose, analytical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been deduced for the LPBF of AlSi10Mg alloy. The single printed layer’s dimensions were estimated using primary operating conditions for the analytical model. In CFD modelling, the volume of fluid and discrete element modelling techniques were applied to illustrate the splashing and spatter phenomena, providing a novel hydrodynamics CFD model for LPBF of AlSi10Mg alloy. The computational results were compared with the experimental analyses. A trial-and-error method was used to propose an optimized set of parameters for the LPBF of AlSi10Mg alloy. Laser scanning speed, laser spot diameter and laser power were changed. On the other hand, the powder layer thickness and hatch distance were kept constant. Following on, 20 samples were fabricated using the LPBF process. The printed samples’ microstructures were used to select optimized parameters for achieving defect-free parts. It was found that the recoil pressure, vaporization, high-speed vapor cloud, Marangoni flow, hydraulic pressure and buoyancy are all controlled by the laser-material interaction time. As the laser-AlSi10Mg material interaction period progresses, the forces presented above become dominant. Splashing occurs due to a combination of increased recoil pressure, laser-material interaction time, higher material’s fluidity, vaporization, dominancy of Marangoni flow, high-speed vapor cloud, hydraulic pressure, buoyancy, and transformation of keyhole from J-shape to reverse triangle-shape that is a tongue-like protrusion in the keyhole. In the LPBF of AlSi10Mg alloy, only the conduction mode melt flow has been determined. For multi-layers printing of AlSi10Mg alloy, the optimum operating conditions are laser power = 140 W, laser spot diameter = 180 µm, laser scanning speed = 0.6 m/s, powder layer thickness = 50 µm and hatch distance = 112 µm. These conditions have been identified using sample microstructures. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser powder bed fusion; computational fluid dynamics; analytical modelling; splashing; AlSi10Mg alloys; FLOW-3D; parameter optimization laser powder bed fusion; computational fluid dynamics; analytical modelling; splashing; AlSi10Mg alloys; FLOW-3D; parameter optimization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ur Rehman, A.; Mahmood, M.A.; Ansari, P.; Pitir, F.; Salamci, M.U.; Popescu, A.C.; Mihailescu, I.N. Spatter Formation and Splashing Induced Defects in Laser-Based Powder Bed Fusion of AlSi10Mg Alloy: A Novel Hydrodynamics Modelling with Empirical Testing. Metals 2021, 11, 2023. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122023

AMA Style

Ur Rehman A, Mahmood MA, Ansari P, Pitir F, Salamci MU, Popescu AC, Mihailescu IN. Spatter Formation and Splashing Induced Defects in Laser-Based Powder Bed Fusion of AlSi10Mg Alloy: A Novel Hydrodynamics Modelling with Empirical Testing. Metals. 2021; 11(12):2023. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ur Rehman, Asif, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Peyman Ansari, Fatih Pitir, Metin Uymaz Salamci, Andrei C. Popescu, and Ion N. Mihailescu. 2021. "Spatter Formation and Splashing Induced Defects in Laser-Based Powder Bed Fusion of AlSi10Mg Alloy: A Novel Hydrodynamics Modelling with Empirical Testing" Metals 11, no. 12: 2023. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11122023

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