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Reuse and Recycling of By-Products in the Steel Sector: Recent Achievements Paving the Way to Circular Economy and Industrial Symbiosis in Europe

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Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, TeCIP Institute, 56124 Pisa, Italy
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FEhS-Institut für Baustoff-Forschung e.V., 47229 Duisburg, Germany
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SWERIM, 97125 Lulea, Sweden
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RINA Consulting-Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A. (CSM), 00128 Castel Romano (Rome), Italy
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VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, 40237 Dusseldorf, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2020, 10(3), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10030345
Received: 8 February 2020 / Revised: 1 March 2020 / Accepted: 3 March 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Prospects of Steelmaking Towards the Year 2050)
Over the last few decades, the European steel industry has focused its efforts on the improvement of by-product recovery and quality, based not only on existing technologies, but also on the development of innovative sustainable solutions. These activities have led the steel industry to save natural resources and to reduce its environmental impact, resulting in being closer to its “zero-waste” goal. In addition, the concept of Circular Economy has been recently strongly emphasised at a European level. The opportunity is perceived of improving the environmental sustainability of the steel production by saving primary raw materials and costs related to by-products and waste landfilling. The aim of this review paper was to analyse the most recent results on the reuse and recycling of by-products of the steelmaking cycles as well as on the exploitation of by-products from other activities outside the steel production cycle, such as alternative carbon sources (e.g., biomasses and plastics). The most relevant results are identified and a global vision of the state-of-the-art is extracted, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of the main outcomes achieved by the European steel industry and of the ongoing or potential synergies with other industrial sectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: by-products; circular economy; industrial symbiosis; reuse; recycling; steel industry by-products; circular economy; industrial symbiosis; reuse; recycling; steel industry
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Branca, T.A.; Colla, V.; Algermissen, D.; Granbom, H.; Martini, U.; Morillon, A.; Pietruck, R.; Rosendahl, S. Reuse and Recycling of By-Products in the Steel Sector: Recent Achievements Paving the Way to Circular Economy and Industrial Symbiosis in Europe. Metals 2020, 10, 345.

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