Next Article in Journal
The Role of the Prader-Willi Syndrome Critical Interval for Epigenetic Regulation, Transcription and Phenotype
Previous Article in Journal
Targeting EZH2 in Multiple Myeloma—Multifaceted Anti-Tumor Activity
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Epigenomes 2018, 2(3), 17;

The Cytoplasm Affects the Epigenome in Drosophila melanogaster

IHPE UMR 5244, University Perpignan Via Domitia, CNRS, IFREMER, University Montpellier, F-66860 Perpignan, France
Applied Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1030 KB, uploaded 9 September 2018]   |  


Cytoplasmic components and their interactions with the nuclear genome may mediate patterns of phenotypic expression to form a joint inheritance system. However, proximate mechanisms underpinning these interactions remain elusive. To independently assess nuclear genetic and epigenetic cytoplasmic effects, we created a full-factorial design in which representative cytoplasms and nuclear backgrounds from each of two geographically disjunct populations of Drosophila melanogaster were matched together in all four possible combinations. To capture slowly-accumulating epimutations in addition to immediately occurring ones, these constructed populations were examined one year later. We found the K4 methylation of histone H3, H3K4me3, an epigenetic marker associated with transcription start-sites had diverged across different cytoplasms. The loci concerned mainly related to metabolism, mitochondrial function, and reproduction. We found little overlap (<8%) in sites that varied genetically and epigenetically, suggesting that epigenetic changes have diverged independently from any cis-regulatory sequence changes. These results are the first to show cytoplasm-specific effects on patterns of nuclear histone methylation. Our results highlight that experimental nuclear-cytoplasm mismatch may be used to provide a platform to identify epigenetic candidate loci to study the molecular mechanisms of cyto-nuclear interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetics; mitochondria; mito-nuclear coevolution; Wolbachia epigenetics; mitochondria; mito-nuclear coevolution; Wolbachia

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grunau, C.; Voigt, S.; Dobler, R.; Dowling, D.K.; Reinhardt, K. The Cytoplasm Affects the Epigenome in Drosophila melanogaster. Epigenomes 2018, 2, 17.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Epigenomes EISSN 2075-4655 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top