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Article

Revision of the World Species of Megaphragma Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)  †

1
Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
2
Research Group in Invertebrate Diversity and Phylogenetics, Faculty of Biology, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Bd. Carol I, Nr. 11, 700506 Iasi, Romania
3
Laboratorio di Lotta biologica, Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, NA, Italy
4
Core Research Laboratories, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
5
Escuela de Biologίa, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San Jose 11501-2060, Costa Rica
6
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:39858D98-8117-407B-ACF2-FBBFE1B231EB.
Academic Editor: Ladislav Bocak
Insects 2022, 13(6), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060561
Received: 16 April 2022 / Revised: 3 June 2022 / Accepted: 4 June 2022 / Published: 20 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hymenoptera: Biology, Taxonomy and Integrated Management)
Parasitoid wasps of the genus Megaphragma are some of the smallest known insects, being as small as some unicellular protozoans. Their life history is not known in great detail, but all species with known biology are parasitoids of thrips eggs (Thysanoptera) and as such, they are potential biological control agents of these pests. At the current state of knowledge of the genus, it is impossible to identify with confidence most of the Megaphragma species (original descriptions lack essential details or illustrations; molecular markers are available for very few species; many species are still undescribed while others were described multiple times). We provide the first revision of the genus that includes the formal descriptions and naming of 22 species and a key to all 32 valid species.
Megaphragma species are important models for basic organismal research, and many are potential biological control agents. We present the first extensive revision of species of the genus Megaphragma based on morphological and molecular data. Our revision includes all previously described species, 6 of which are synonymized, and 22 of which are described here as new. We also provide the first key to all species of the genus and reconstruct their phylogeny based on 28S and CO1 molecular markers. The following species are synonymized with M. longiciliatum Subba Rao: M. aligarhensis Yousuf and Shafee syn. nov.; M. amalphitanum Viggiani syn. nov.; M. decochaetum Lin syn. nov.; M. magniclava Yousuf and Shafee syn. nov.; M. shimalianum Hayat syn. nov.M. anomalifuniculi Yuan and Lou syn. nov. is synonymized with M. polychaetum Lin. The following species are described as new: M. antecessor Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. breviclavum Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. chienleei Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. cockerilli Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. digitatum Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. fanenitrakely Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. funiculatum Fusu, Polaszek, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. giraulti Viggiani, Fusu, and Polaszek sp. nov.; M. hansoni Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. kinuthiae Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. liui Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. momookherjeeae Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. nowickii Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. noyesi Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. pintoi Viggiani sp. nov.; M. polilovi Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. rivelloi Viggiani sp. nov.; M. tamoi Polaszek, Fusu, and Viggiani sp. nov.; M. tridens Fusu, and Polaszek sp. nov.; M. uniclavum Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. vanlentereni Polaszek and Fusu sp. nov.; M. viggianii Fusu, Polaszek, and Polilov sp. nov. View Full-Text
Keywords: species delimitation; egg parasitoid; Chalcidoidea; integrative taxonomy; molecular phylogeny; DNA barcoding; mini-barcode species delimitation; egg parasitoid; Chalcidoidea; integrative taxonomy; molecular phylogeny; DNA barcoding; mini-barcode
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MDPI and ACS Style

Polaszek, A.; Fusu, L.; Viggiani, G.; Hall, A.; Hanson, P.; Polilov, A.A. Revision of the World Species of Megaphragma Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) . Insects 2022, 13, 561. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060561

AMA Style

Polaszek A, Fusu L, Viggiani G, Hall A, Hanson P, Polilov AA. Revision of the World Species of Megaphragma Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) . Insects. 2022; 13(6):561. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060561

Chicago/Turabian Style

Polaszek, Andrew, Lucian Fusu, Gennaro Viggiani, Andie Hall, Paul Hanson, and Alexey A. Polilov. 2022. "Revision of the World Species of Megaphragma Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) " Insects 13, no. 6: 561. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060561

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