First Evaluation of Field Evolved Resistance to Commonly Used Insecticides in House Fly Populations from Saudi Arabian Dairy Farms
Pesticides and Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Academic Editor: Hanafy Ismail
Received: 10 November 2021
Revised: 9 December 2021
Accepted: 12 December 2021
Published: 14 December 2021
The house fly is one of the major carriers of several diseases that affect humans and animals. Insecticides are often used as a rapid method to control them. In this study, eight commonly used insecticides were tested against five populations of house flies collected from dairies around Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The aim was to evaluate how toxic the insecticides were, and to find out whether the flies showed any sign of resistance against insecticides. In the tested pyrethroid insecticides, there was no or only moderate resistance in adults of both sexes compared to a known susceptible strain. In the tested organophosphate insecticides, there was low to moderate resistance in adults of both sexes compared to the susceptible strain. This study also evaluated “median lethal times” for the tested insecticides (how long a certain dose takes to kill half the exposed population), with results available for all eight insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, and malathion. The results of this study will be helpful for people whose job it is to plan effective house fly control programs in Saudi Arabia.