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Article

Morphology of the Antennal Sensilla of Notonectoidea and Comparison of Evolutionary Changes in Sensilla Types and Distribution in Infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera)

Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice, Poland
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Academic Editors: Sylvia Anton and Romina B. Barrozo
Insects 2021, 12(12), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121121
Received: 23 November 2021 / Revised: 9 December 2021 / Accepted: 11 December 2021 / Published: 14 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Insect Sensory Biology)
Antennal sensilla are important sensory organs for insects. According to their morphological structures, they respond to different chemical or mechanical stimuli. The antennae of the studied families of water insects (Notonectidae, Pleidae and Helotrephidae) are short and concealed under the head, leaving a small amount of space for the existence of sensory structures. Nevertheless, six main types of sensilla have been discovered on the surfaces of these antennae. The morphological types described in this study were further compared with other studies on the antennal sensilla of water bugs (Nepomorpha) in order to compare their evolutionary changes within the group.
This article introduces the results of a study of three families of Nepomorpha and is the last part of a series of studies that sums up our work on the morphologies of the antennal sensory structures in this taxon. The morphologies and distribution of the sensilla in the families Notonectidae, Pleidae and Helotrephidae were studied under a scanning electron microscope. Six main types (sensilla trichodea, chaetica, campaniformia, basiconica, ampullacea and coeloconica) and ten subtypes (five subtypes of sensilla trichodea and five subtypes of sensilla basiconica) were described. The results were compared with other studies on the antennal sensilla of Nepomorpha in order to assess evolutionary changes within the infraorder. With the use of cladistics analysis, the monophyly of the families Nepidae, Micronectidae, Corixidae and Gelastocoridae was supported. On the other hand, the occurrence of some clades forming superfamilies was weakly supported by bootstrap analysis. These results, supported by presence of the numerous autapomorphies, suggest that antennal sensilla evolved within inner groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensory structures; Notonectidae; Pleidae; Helotrephidae; water bugs sensory structures; Notonectidae; Pleidae; Helotrephidae; water bugs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nowińska, A.; Brożek, J. Morphology of the Antennal Sensilla of Notonectoidea and Comparison of Evolutionary Changes in Sensilla Types and Distribution in Infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera). Insects 2021, 12, 1121. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121121

AMA Style

Nowińska A, Brożek J. Morphology of the Antennal Sensilla of Notonectoidea and Comparison of Evolutionary Changes in Sensilla Types and Distribution in Infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera). Insects. 2021; 12(12):1121. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121121

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nowińska, Agnieszka, and Jolanta Brożek. 2021. "Morphology of the Antennal Sensilla of Notonectoidea and Comparison of Evolutionary Changes in Sensilla Types and Distribution in Infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera)" Insects 12, no. 12: 1121. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121121

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