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Open AccessArticle

Limited Effect of Management on Apple Pollination: A Case Study from an Oceanic Island

1
cE3c-Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Universidade dos Açores, PT-9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal
2
Forestry Research Group-INDEHESA, University of Extremadura, 10600 Plasencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(6), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060351
Received: 21 April 2020 / Revised: 29 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects-Environment Interaction)
Intensive agricultural practices leading to habitat degradation represent a major threat to pollinators. Diverse management practices are expected to influence wild pollinator abundance and richness on farms, although their effect in perennial crops is still unclear. In this study, we assessed the impact of management on apple (Malus domestica) pollination on an oceanic island, by comparing conventional (with and without herbicide application) and organic apple orchards. Pollinator visitation and pan trap surveys were carried out in six apple orchards in Terceira Island (Azores) and the landscape composition surrounding orchards was characterized. We also quantified fruit set, seed set and apple weight. We found no significant effect of management on insect visitation rates, whereas there was a negative association with increasing surrounding agricultural land. In contrast, management had an effect on species abundance, richness and diversity at the orchard level. Conventional orchards without herbicides showed higher abundance than the rest, but lower richness and diversity than conventional orchards with herbicides. Management had an effect on fruit set, but not on seed set or fruit weight. Our results suggest that management alone is insufficient for the overall improvement of apple pollination on an oceanic island, while landscape composition may play a relevant role. View Full-Text
Keywords: conventional farming; diptera; herbaceous cover; hymenoptera; insect visitation; Malus domestica; organic farming; pollination services; species diversity conventional farming; diptera; herbaceous cover; hymenoptera; insect visitation; Malus domestica; organic farming; pollination services; species diversity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pardo, A.; Lopes, D.H.; Fierro, N.; Borges, P.A.V. Limited Effect of Management on Apple Pollination: A Case Study from an Oceanic Island. Insects 2020, 11, 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060351

AMA Style

Pardo A, Lopes DH, Fierro N, Borges PAV. Limited Effect of Management on Apple Pollination: A Case Study from an Oceanic Island. Insects. 2020; 11(6):351. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060351

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pardo, Adara; Lopes, David H.; Fierro, Natalia; Borges, Paulo A.V. 2020. "Limited Effect of Management on Apple Pollination: A Case Study from an Oceanic Island" Insects 11, no. 6: 351. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060351

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