Next Article in Journal
Mechanism of Friction and Wear in MoS2 and ZDDP/F-PTFE Greases under Spectrum Loading Conditions
Next Article in Special Issue
Direct Laser Interference Patterning: Tailoring of Contact Area for Frictional and Antibacterial Properties
Previous Article in Journal
Ionic Nanofluids in Tribology
Open AccessArticle

Development of a Synthetic Synovial Fluid for Tribological Testing

RMS Foundation, Bischmattstrasse 12, CH-4500 Bettlach, Switzerland
TU Hamburg, Schwarzenbergstrasse 95, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ille C. Gebeshuber
Lubricants 2015, 3(4), 664-686;
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)
Wear tests of joint prostheses are usually performed using bovine calf serum. The results from different laboratories are hardly ever comparable as, for example, the protein concentration and the protein composition of the serum-based test liquids vary. In addition, the viscosity of these test liquids is similar to that of water and does not match the more viscous synovial fluid. The present work was aimed at developing a synthetic synovial fluid as an alternative to the existing test liquids. Improved consistency and reproducibility of results at a similar price were required. Hyaluronic acid (HA), the lyophilized proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), the phospholipid lecithin (PL) and salts were applied in a stepwise approach to replace the actually used test liquid based on newborn calf serum. The in vitro results obtained with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) pins sliding against CoCrMo discs revealed that the developed synthetic synovial fluid fulfils the set requirements: increase of viscosity, reasonable cost, improved consistency and wear particles which resemble the ones found in vivo. The developed synthetic synovial fluid with 3 g/L HA, 19 g/L BSA, 11 g/L IgG, 0.1 g/L PL and Ringer solution is a more realistic alternative to the used serum-based test liquid. View Full-Text
Keywords: synthetic synovial fluid; viscosity; tribology; prosthesis testing; UHMWPE; polyethylene; CoCrMo synthetic synovial fluid; viscosity; tribology; prosthesis testing; UHMWPE; polyethylene; CoCrMo
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Bortel, E.L.; Charbonnier, B.; Heuberger, R. Development of a Synthetic Synovial Fluid for Tribological Testing. Lubricants 2015, 3, 664-686.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop