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Ionic Nanofluids in Tribology
Open AccessArticle

Development of a Synthetic Synovial Fluid for Tribological Testing

1
RMS Foundation, Bischmattstrasse 12, CH-4500 Bettlach, Switzerland
2
TU Hamburg, Schwarzenbergstrasse 95, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ille C. Gebeshuber
Lubricants 2015, 3(4), 664-686; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants3040664
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubricants Related to Human Bodies)
Wear tests of joint prostheses are usually performed using bovine calf serum. The results from different laboratories are hardly ever comparable as, for example, the protein concentration and the protein composition of the serum-based test liquids vary. In addition, the viscosity of these test liquids is similar to that of water and does not match the more viscous synovial fluid. The present work was aimed at developing a synthetic synovial fluid as an alternative to the existing test liquids. Improved consistency and reproducibility of results at a similar price were required. Hyaluronic acid (HA), the lyophilized proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), the phospholipid lecithin (PL) and salts were applied in a stepwise approach to replace the actually used test liquid based on newborn calf serum. The in vitro results obtained with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) pins sliding against CoCrMo discs revealed that the developed synthetic synovial fluid fulfils the set requirements: increase of viscosity, reasonable cost, improved consistency and wear particles which resemble the ones found in vivo. The developed synthetic synovial fluid with 3 g/L HA, 19 g/L BSA, 11 g/L IgG, 0.1 g/L PL and Ringer solution is a more realistic alternative to the used serum-based test liquid. View Full-Text
Keywords: synthetic synovial fluid; viscosity; tribology; prosthesis testing; UHMWPE; polyethylene; CoCrMo synthetic synovial fluid; viscosity; tribology; prosthesis testing; UHMWPE; polyethylene; CoCrMo
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bortel, E.L.; Charbonnier, B.; Heuberger, R. Development of a Synthetic Synovial Fluid for Tribological Testing. Lubricants 2015, 3, 664-686.

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