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Tissue- and Liquid-Based Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine

1
Translational Oncology Research Group, Institute of Genetics and Cancer, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
2
The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
3
Breast Cancer Now Edinburgh Research Team, Institute of Genetics and Cancer, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
4
Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Western General Hospital, NHS Lothian, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christophe Badie
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(7), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11070664
Received: 14 June 2021 / Revised: 6 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 15 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Biomarker Research and Personalized Medicine)
Worldwide, prostate cancer (PC) is the second-most-frequently diagnosed male cancer and the fifth-most-common cause of all cancer-related deaths. Suspicion of PC in a patient is largely based upon clinical signs and the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Although PSA levels have been criticised for a lack of specificity, leading to PC over-diagnosis, it is still the most commonly used biomarker in PC management. Unfortunately, PC is extremely heterogeneous, and it can be difficult to stratify patients whose tumours are unlikely to progress from those that are aggressive and require treatment intensification. Although PC-specific biomarker research has previously focused on disease diagnosis, there is an unmet clinical need for novel prognostic, predictive and treatment response biomarkers that can be used to provide a precision medicine approach to PC management. In particular, the identification of biomarkers at the time of screening/diagnosis that can provide an indication of disease aggressiveness is perhaps the greatest current unmet clinical need in PC management. Largely through advances in genomic and proteomic techniques, exciting pre-clinical and clinical research is continuing to identify potential tissue, blood and urine-based PC-specific biomarkers that may in the future supplement or replace current standard practices. In this review, we describe how PC-specific biomarker research is progressing, including the evolution of PSA-based tests and those novel assays that have gained clinical approval. We also describe alternative diagnostic biomarkers to PSA, in addition to biomarkers that can predict PC aggressiveness and biomarkers that can predict response to certain therapies. We believe that novel biomarker research has the potential to make significant improvements to the clinical management of this disease in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; precision medicine; tissue-based biomarkers; liquid-based biomarkers prostate cancer; precision medicine; tissue-based biomarkers; liquid-based biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Meehan, J.; Gray, M.; Martínez-Pérez, C.; Kay, C.; McLaren, D.; Turnbull, A.K. Tissue- and Liquid-Based Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11070664

AMA Style

Meehan J, Gray M, Martínez-Pérez C, Kay C, McLaren D, Turnbull AK. Tissue- and Liquid-Based Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(7):664. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11070664

Chicago/Turabian Style

Meehan, James, Mark Gray, Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Charlene Kay, Duncan McLaren, and Arran K. Turnbull. 2021. "Tissue- and Liquid-Based Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Precision Medicine" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 7: 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11070664

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