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Systematic Review

Influencing Cardiovascular Outcomes through Heart Rate Variability Modulation: A Systematic Review

1
Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania
2
Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 700503 Iasi, Romania
3
Medical Sciences Academy, 700503 Iasi, Romania
4
Nephrology Clinic, Dialysis, and Renal Transplant Center, University Hospital, 700503 Iasi, Romania
5
Military Emergency Clinical Hospital, 700483 Iasi, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ernesto Di Cesare
Diagnostics 2021, 11(12), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122198
Received: 25 October 2021 / Revised: 22 November 2021 / Accepted: 23 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
Psychological stress is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart rate variability (HRV)-biofeedback could significantly reduce stress levels and improve autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular endpoints. We aimed to systematically review the literature to investigate the impact of HRV modulation through HRV-biofeedback on clinical outcomes in patients with CVD. A literature search was performed in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and Cochrane from the inception until 1 October 2021. Patients in the HRV-biofeedback group had significantly lower rates of all-cause readmissions than patients who received psychological education (respectively, p = 0.028 and p = 0.001). Heart failure following HRV-biofeedback displayed an inverse association with stress and depression (respectively, p = 0.022 and p = 0.033). When stratified according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), patients with LVEF ≥ 31% showed improved values of the 6 min walk test after HRV-biofeedback interventions (p = 0.05). A reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure associated with HRV-biofeedback was observed (p < 0.01) in pre-hypertensive patients. HRV-biofeedback had beneficial effects on different cardiovascular diseases documented in clinical trials, such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, and coronary artery disease. A standard breathing protocol should be applied in future studies to obtain equivalent results and outcomes. However, data regarding mortality in patients with coronary artery disease are scarce and need further research. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart rate variability; biofeedback; cardiovascular diseases; cardiovascular outcomes; breathing heart rate variability; biofeedback; cardiovascular diseases; cardiovascular outcomes; breathing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burlacu, A.; Brinza, C.; Popa, I.V.; Covic, A.; Floria, M. Influencing Cardiovascular Outcomes through Heart Rate Variability Modulation: A Systematic Review. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 2198. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122198

AMA Style

Burlacu A, Brinza C, Popa IV, Covic A, Floria M. Influencing Cardiovascular Outcomes through Heart Rate Variability Modulation: A Systematic Review. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(12):2198. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122198

Chicago/Turabian Style

Burlacu, Alexandru, Crischentian Brinza, Iolanda V. Popa, Adrian Covic, and Mariana Floria. 2021. "Influencing Cardiovascular Outcomes through Heart Rate Variability Modulation: A Systematic Review" Diagnostics 11, no. 12: 2198. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122198

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