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Article

Fifty Shades of Scandium: Comparative Study of PET Capabilities Using Sc-43 and Sc-44 with Respect to Conventional Clinical Radionuclides

1
Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Luzerner Kantonsspital, 6004 Luzern, Switzerland
2
Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, University of Lausanne, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
3
Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
4
Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Martin Alexander Walter, Rebecca Dumont and Pablo Jane
Diagnostics 2021, 11(10), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11101826
Received: 20 July 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 3 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Trends in Radioisotope-Based Imaging)
Scandium-44 has been proposed as a valuable radionuclide for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Recently, scandium-43 was introduced as a more favorable option, as it does not emit high-energy γ-radiation; however, its currently employed production method results in a mixture of scandium-43 and scandium-44. The interest in new radionuclides for diagnostic nuclear medicine critically depends on the option for image-based quantification. We aimed to evaluate and compare the quantitative capabilities of scandium-43/scandium-44 in a commercial PET/CT device with respect to more conventional clinical radionuclides (fluorine-18 and gallium-68). With this purpose, we characterized and compared quantitative PET data from a mixture of scandium-43/scandium-44 (~68% scandium-43), scandium-44, fluorine-18 and gallium-68, respectively. A NEMA image-quality phantom was filled with the different radionuclides using clinical-relevant lesion-to-background activity concentration ratios; images were acquired in a Siemens Biograph Vision PET/CT. Quantitative accuracy with scandium-43/scandium-44 in the phantom’s background was within 9%, which is in agreement with fluorine-18-based PET standards. Coefficient of variance (COV) was 6.32% and signal recovery in the lesions provided RCmax (recovery coefficient) values of 0.66, 0.90, 1.03, 1.04, 1.12 and 1.11 for lesions of 10-, 13-, 17-, 22-, 28- and 37-mm diameter, respectively. These results are in agreement with EARL reference values for fluorine-18 PET. The results in this work showed that accurate quantitative scandium-43/44 PET/CT is achievable in commercial devices. This may promote the future introduction of scandium-43/44-labelled radiopharmaceuticals into clinical use. View Full-Text
Keywords: PET; quantification; novel radionuclides PET; quantification; novel radionuclides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lima, T.V.M.; Gnesin, S.; Strobel, K.; Pérez, M.d.S.; Roos, J.E.; Müller, C.; van der Meulen, N.P. Fifty Shades of Scandium: Comparative Study of PET Capabilities Using Sc-43 and Sc-44 with Respect to Conventional Clinical Radionuclides. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 1826. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11101826

AMA Style

Lima TVM, Gnesin S, Strobel K, Pérez MdS, Roos JE, Müller C, van der Meulen NP. Fifty Shades of Scandium: Comparative Study of PET Capabilities Using Sc-43 and Sc-44 with Respect to Conventional Clinical Radionuclides. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(10):1826. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11101826

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lima, Thiago V.M., Silvano Gnesin, Klaus Strobel, Maria d.S. Pérez, Justus E. Roos, Cristina Müller, and Nicholas P. van der Meulen 2021. "Fifty Shades of Scandium: Comparative Study of PET Capabilities Using Sc-43 and Sc-44 with Respect to Conventional Clinical Radionuclides" Diagnostics 11, no. 10: 1826. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11101826

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