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Open AccessArticle

L1CAM, CA9, KLK6, HPN, and ALDH1A1 as Potential Serum Markers in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Screening

UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute (UMBI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
Prima Nexus Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur 50470, Malaysia
Colorectal Unit, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
Novel Bacteria and Drug Discovery Research Group, Microbiome and Bioresource Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(7), 444;
Received: 3 May 2020 / Revised: 28 May 2020 / Accepted: 29 May 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Biomarkers in Medicine)
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening at the earlier stages could effectively decrease CRC-related mortality and incidence; however, accurate screening strategies are still lacking. Considerable interest has been generated in the detection of less invasive tests requiring a small sample volume with the potential to detect several cancer biomarkers simultaneously. Due to this, the ELISA-based method was undertaken in this study. Methods: Concentrations of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM), carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), mesothelin (MSLN), midkine (MDK), hepsin (HPN), kallikrein 6 (KLK6), transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 (ALDH1A1), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) from blood serum of 36 primary CRC and 24 metastatic CRC (mCRC) were calculated via MAGPIX® System (Luminex Corporation, USA). Results: Significantly increased concentration (p < 0.05) of three serum biomarkers (L1CAM, CA9, and HPN) were shown in mCRC when compared with primary CRC. HPN and KLK6 showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in concentration among different stages of CRC. In contrast, levels of HPN and ALDH1A1 were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in chemotherapy-treated CRC patients as compared with nontreated ones. Conclusion: Serum biomarkers could act as a potential early CRC diagnostics test, but further additional testings are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: serum biomarkers; screening; colorectal cancer; metastasis; chemotherapy; noninvasive serum biomarkers; screening; colorectal cancer; metastasis; chemotherapy; noninvasive
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Tieng, F.Y.F.; Abu, N.; Sukor, S.; Mohd Azman, Z.A.; Mahamad Nadzir, N.; Lee, L.-H.; Ab Mutalib, N.S. L1CAM, CA9, KLK6, HPN, and ALDH1A1 as Potential Serum Markers in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Screening. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 444.

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