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Open AccessArticle

L1CAM, CA9, KLK6, HPN, and ALDH1A1 as Potential Serum Markers in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Screening

1
UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute (UMBI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
2
Prima Nexus Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur 50470, Malaysia
3
Colorectal Unit, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
4
Novel Bacteria and Drug Discovery Research Group, Microbiome and Bioresource Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(7), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10070444
Received: 3 May 2020 / Revised: 28 May 2020 / Accepted: 29 May 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Biomarkers in Medicine)
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening at the earlier stages could effectively decrease CRC-related mortality and incidence; however, accurate screening strategies are still lacking. Considerable interest has been generated in the detection of less invasive tests requiring a small sample volume with the potential to detect several cancer biomarkers simultaneously. Due to this, the ELISA-based method was undertaken in this study. Methods: Concentrations of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM), carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), mesothelin (MSLN), midkine (MDK), hepsin (HPN), kallikrein 6 (KLK6), transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 (ALDH1A1), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) from blood serum of 36 primary CRC and 24 metastatic CRC (mCRC) were calculated via MAGPIX® System (Luminex Corporation, USA). Results: Significantly increased concentration (p < 0.05) of three serum biomarkers (L1CAM, CA9, and HPN) were shown in mCRC when compared with primary CRC. HPN and KLK6 showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in concentration among different stages of CRC. In contrast, levels of HPN and ALDH1A1 were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in chemotherapy-treated CRC patients as compared with nontreated ones. Conclusion: Serum biomarkers could act as a potential early CRC diagnostics test, but further additional testings are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: serum biomarkers; screening; colorectal cancer; metastasis; chemotherapy; noninvasive serum biomarkers; screening; colorectal cancer; metastasis; chemotherapy; noninvasive
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Tieng, F.Y.F.; Abu, N.; Sukor, S.; Mohd Azman, Z.A.; Mahamad Nadzir, N.; Lee, L.-H.; Ab Mutalib, N.S. L1CAM, CA9, KLK6, HPN, and ALDH1A1 as Potential Serum Markers in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Screening. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 444.

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