Cross-country skiing has a positive effect on health. However, without an individual, thoughtful, and professional plan, it can cause irreversible health problems from overload and injury. The impact of exercise on results is well understood within the group of professional athletes. However, this remains unknown within the group of amateur cross-country skiers and marathon runners—in particular, the impact of the summer preparation period in which training loads performed in the oxygen zone combined with resistance training dominate. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the cardiovascular capacity and body mass composition of male cross-country skiers in the preparation period of their macrocycle. Variables were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics: mean and standard deviation (SD). To compare the results from both measurements (initial and final) the paired Wilcoxon test was used. A statistically significant increase was noted in maximum oxygen uptake and maximum minute ventilation, and a decrease in body fat content, maximum lactate concentration and lactate threshold, and heart rate on anaerobic threshold. Research indicated that in the amateur group increases similar to those in top competitors were achieved in the parameters tested, but the initial level was often significantly lower.
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