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Open AccessArticle

Could SCGF-Beta Levels Be Associated with Inflammation Markers and Insulin Resistance in Male Patients Suffering from Obesity-Related NAFLD?

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
Department of General Medicine, “Umberto I” Hospital, Nocera Inferiore (Sa), 84014 Nocera Inferiore, Italy
Department of Clinical Medicine, Life, Health & Environmental Sciences-MESVA, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Clinical Pharmacology Consultant, Casoria, 80026 Naples, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(6), 395;
Received: 25 May 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 11 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosing NAFLD: Which Tool, Where, When and Why to Use It)
One of the pathologic hallmarks of obesity is macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue that has been confirmed as source of multipotent adult stem cells. Stem cell growth factor-beta (SCGF-β) shows activity on granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells in combination with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Obesity-associated inflammation induces insulin resistance (IR), which is central to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or hepatic steatosis (HS). We searched for relationship between levels of SCGF-β and those of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β), interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), interleukin-10 (IL-10), ferritin, GM-CSF and M-CSF and between SCGF-β concentrations and IR in obese patients with HS. Eighty obese patients were retrospectively studied. Serum cytokines levels were appreciated by magnetic bead-based multiplex immunoassays. IR was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), HOMA-derived β-cell function (HOMA-B%), quantitative insulin sensitivity check Index (QUICKI) and single point insulin sensitivity estimator (SPISE). HS and spleen volume were assessed by ultrasonography (US). SCGF-β and IL-6 levels predicted HOMA values (p = 0.032 and 0.041, respectively) only in males. In male patients, CRP and IL-6 levels (p = 0.007) predicted SCGF-β concentrations (p = 0.03 and 0.007, respectively), which in turn predicted HS at US, p = 0.037. SCGF-β levels were linked to IR and HS severity with the mediation role of CRP. IL-10 levels negatively predicted SCGF-β concentrations (p = 0.033). M-CSF levels predicted serum concentration of both TNF-β and IL-12p40 (p = 0.00), but did not predict serum IL-10 (p = 0.30). Prediction of HOMA values by SCGF-β levels, likely mediated by markers of inflammation, characterizes this study, shedding some light on mechanisms inducing/worsening IR of male patients with obesity-related NAFLD. View Full-Text
Keywords: SCGF-β levels; insulin resistance; hepatic steatosis; obesity; CSFs SCGF-β levels; insulin resistance; hepatic steatosis; obesity; CSFs
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Tarantino, G.; Citro, V.; Balsano, C.; Capone, D. Could SCGF-Beta Levels Be Associated with Inflammation Markers and Insulin Resistance in Male Patients Suffering from Obesity-Related NAFLD? Diagnostics 2020, 10, 395.

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