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Sensor-as-a-Service: Convergence of Sensor Analytic Point Solutions (SNAPS) and Pay-A-Penny-Per-Use (PAPPU) Paradigm as a Catalyst for Democratization of Healthcare in Underserved Communities

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Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
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Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, Universidad del Valle, Cali 760026, Colombia
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Interdisciplinary Group for Biotechnological Innovation and Ecosocial Change BioNovo, Universidad del Valle, Cali 760026, Colombia
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Biosystems Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631, USA
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Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
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School of Computer Engineering, Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Saveh 11369, Iran
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Global Alliance for Rapid Diagnostics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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School of Medical Sciences, Kathmandu University, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
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Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University, Kavrepalanchok 45200, Nepal
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Instituto de Investigacion en Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Cesar Vallejo, Trujillo 13100, Peru
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Hospital Victor Lazarte Echegaray, Trujillo 13100, Peru
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Institute for Global Health, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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MIT Auto-ID Labs, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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MDPnP Interoperability and Cybersecurity Labs, Biomedical Engineering Program, Department of Anesthesiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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NSF Center for Robots and Sensors for Human Well-Being, Purdue University, 156 Knoy Hall, Purdue Polytechnic, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10010022
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 29 December 2019 / Accepted: 30 December 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors-Based Diagnostics)
In this manuscript, we discuss relevant socioeconomic factors for developing and implementing sensor analytic point solutions (SNAPS) as point-of-care tools to serve impoverished communities. The distinct economic, environmental, cultural, and ethical paradigms that affect economically disadvantaged users add complexity to the process of technology development and deployment beyond the science and engineering issues. We begin by contextualizing the environmental burden of disease in select low-income regions around the world, including environmental hazards at work, home, and the broader community environment, where SNAPS may be helpful in the prevention and mitigation of human exposure to harmful biological vectors and chemical agents. We offer examples of SNAPS designed for economically disadvantaged users, specifically for supporting decision-making in cases of tuberculosis (TB) infection and mercury exposure. We follow-up by discussing the economic challenges that are involved in the phased implementation of diagnostic tools in low-income markets and describe a micropayment-based systems-as-a-service approach (pay-a-penny-per-use—PAPPU), which may be catalytic for the adoption of low-end, low-margin, low-research, and the development SNAPS. Finally, we provide some insights into the social and ethical considerations for the assimilation of SNAPS to improve health outcomes in marginalized communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensor analytic point solutions (SNAPS); environmental health; poverty; pay-a-penny-per-use (PAPPU); public health sensor analytic point solutions (SNAPS); environmental health; poverty; pay-a-penny-per-use (PAPPU); public health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morgan, V.; Casso-Hartmann, L.; Bahamon-Pinzon, D.; McCourt, K.; Hjort, R.G.; Bahramzadeh, S.; Velez-Torres, I.; McLamore, E.; Gomes, C.; Alocilja, E.C.; Bhusal, N.; Shrestha, S.; Pote, N.; Briceno, R.K.; Datta, S.P.A.; Vanegas, D.C. Sensor-as-a-Service: Convergence of Sensor Analytic Point Solutions (SNAPS) and Pay-A-Penny-Per-Use (PAPPU) Paradigm as a Catalyst for Democratization of Healthcare in Underserved Communities. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 22.

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