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Life 2015, 5(4), 1638-1651;

tRNA-Derived Fragments (tRFs): Emerging New Roles for an Ancient RNA in the Regulation of Gene Expression

Centre for Health Technologies, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo 2007, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lluís Ribas de Pouplana and Adrian Gabriel Torres
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution of tRNA)
Full-Text   |   PDF [581 KB, uploaded 27 November 2015]   |  
  |   Review Reports


This review will summarise the recent discoveries and current state of research on short noncoding RNAs derived from tRNAs—known as tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs). It will describe the features of the known subtypes of these RNAs; including sequence characteristics, protein interactors, expression characteristics, biogenesis, and similarity to canonical miRNA pathways. Also their role in regulating gene expression; including mediating translational suppression, will be discussed. We also highlight their potential use as biomarkers, functions in gene regulation and links to disease. Finally, this review will speculate as to the origin and rationale for the conservation of this novel class of noncoding RNAs amongst both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. View Full-Text
Keywords: tRNA-derived fragments; tRF; tRNA; small RNA; gene regulation tRNA-derived fragments; tRF; tRNA; small RNA; gene regulation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Keam, S.P.; Hutvagner, G. tRNA-Derived Fragments (tRFs): Emerging New Roles for an Ancient RNA in the Regulation of Gene Expression. Life 2015, 5, 1638-1651.

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