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Article

Bacillus mycoides PM35 Reinforces Photosynthetic Efficiency, Antioxidant Defense, Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes, and Ameliorates the Effects of Salinity Stress in Maize

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Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
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College of Life Sciences, Yan’an University, Yan’an 716000, China
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College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Department of Plant Pathology, Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Lavras 37200-900, Brazil
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Department of Botany, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda 24420, Pakistan
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Biology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk, Tabuk 71421, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Environmental Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kousuke Hanada, Yoshiteru Noutoshi and Balazs Barna
Life 2022, 12(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020219
Received: 16 November 2021 / Revised: 24 January 2022 / Accepted: 26 January 2022 / Published: 30 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Plant Science)
Soil salinity is one of the abiotic constraints that imbalance nutrient acquisition, hampers plant growth, and leads to potential loss in agricultural productivity. Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can alleviate the adverse impacts of salt stress by mediating molecular, biochemical, and physiological status. In the present study, the bacterium Bacillus mycoides PM35 showed resistance up to 3 M NaCl stress and exhibited plant growth-promoting features. Under salinity stress, the halo-tolerant bacterium B. mycoides PM35 showed significant plant growth-promoting traits, such as the production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, ACC deaminase, and exopolysaccharides. Inoculation of B. mycoides PM35 alleviated salt stress in plants and enhanced shoot and root length under salinity stress (0, 300, 600, and 900 mM). The B. mycoides PM35 alleviated salinity stress by enhancing the photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, radical scavenging capacity, soluble sugars, and protein content in inoculated maize plants compared to non-inoculated plants. In addition, B. mycoides PM35 significantly boosted antioxidant activities, relative water content, flavonoid, phenolic content, and osmolytes while reducing electrolyte leakage, H2O2, and MDA in maize compared to control plants. Genes conferring abiotic stress tolerance (CzcD, sfp, and srfAA genes) were amplified in B. mycoides PM35. Moreover, all reactions are accompanied by the upregulation of stress-related genes (APX and SOD). Our study reveals that B. mycoides PM35 is capable of promoting plant growth and increasing agricultural productivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: abiotic stress; plant growth-promoting bacteria; plant–microbe interactions; salinity stress; bio-surfactant abiotic stress; plant growth-promoting bacteria; plant–microbe interactions; salinity stress; bio-surfactant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, B.; Wang, X.; Saleem, M.H.; Azeem, M.A.; Afridi, M.S.; Nadeem, M.; Ghazal, M.; Batool, T.; Qayyum, A.; Alatawi, A.; Ali, S. Bacillus mycoides PM35 Reinforces Photosynthetic Efficiency, Antioxidant Defense, Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes, and Ameliorates the Effects of Salinity Stress in Maize. Life 2022, 12, 219. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020219

AMA Style

Ali B, Wang X, Saleem MH, Azeem MA, Afridi MS, Nadeem M, Ghazal M, Batool T, Qayyum A, Alatawi A, Ali S. Bacillus mycoides PM35 Reinforces Photosynthetic Efficiency, Antioxidant Defense, Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes, and Ameliorates the Effects of Salinity Stress in Maize. Life. 2022; 12(2):219. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020219

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ali, Baber, Xiukang Wang, Muhammad Hamzah Saleem, Muhammad Atif Azeem, Muhammad Siddique Afridi, Mehwish Nadeem, Mehreen Ghazal, Tayyaba Batool, Ayesha Qayyum, Aishah Alatawi, and Shafaqat Ali. 2022. "Bacillus mycoides PM35 Reinforces Photosynthetic Efficiency, Antioxidant Defense, Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes, and Ameliorates the Effects of Salinity Stress in Maize" Life 12, no. 2: 219. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020219

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