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Review

Does the Calcaneus Serve as Hypomochlion within the Lower Limb by a Myofascial Connection?—A Systematic Review

1
Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 13353 Berlin, Germany
2
Technische Universität München, 80333 München, Germany
3
Diploma University of Applied Sciences, 37242 Bad Sooden-Allendorf, Germany
4
Julius Wolff Institute, Berlin Institute of Health and Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 13353 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicola Maffulli
Life 2021, 11(8), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11080745
Received: 23 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 21 July 2021 / Published: 26 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fasciae from a Molecular and Biomechanical Perspective)
(1) Background: Clinical approaches have depicted interconnectivity between the Achilles tendon and the plantar fascia. This concept has been applied in rehabilitation, prevention, and in conservative management plans, yet potential anatomical and histological connection is not fully understood. (2) Objective: To explore the possible explanation that the calcaneus acts as a hypomochlion. (3) Methods: 2 databases (Pubmed and Livivo) were searched and studies, including those that examined the relationship of the calcaneus to the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia and its biomechanical role. The included studies highlighted either the anatomical, histological, or biomechanical aspect of the lower limb. (4) Results: Seventeen studies were included. Some studies depicted an anatomical connection that slowly declines with age. Others mention a histological similarity and continuity via the paratenon, while a few papers have brought forward mechanical reasoning. (5) Conclusion: The concept of the calcaneus acting as a fulcrum in the lower limb can partially be supported by anatomical, histological, and biomechanical concepts. Despite the plethora of research, a comprehensive understanding is yet to be investigated. Further research exploring the precise interaction is necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypomochlion; Achilles tendon; plantar fascia; fulcrum; calcaneus hypomochlion; Achilles tendon; plantar fascia; fulcrum; calcaneus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Weinrich, L.; Paraskevaidis, M.; Schleip, R.; Agres, A.N.; Tsitsilonis, S. Does the Calcaneus Serve as Hypomochlion within the Lower Limb by a Myofascial Connection?—A Systematic Review. Life 2021, 11, 745. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11080745

AMA Style

Weinrich L, Paraskevaidis M, Schleip R, Agres AN, Tsitsilonis S. Does the Calcaneus Serve as Hypomochlion within the Lower Limb by a Myofascial Connection?—A Systematic Review. Life. 2021; 11(8):745. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11080745

Chicago/Turabian Style

Weinrich, Luise, Melissa Paraskevaidis, Robert Schleip, Alison N. Agres, and Serafeim Tsitsilonis. 2021. "Does the Calcaneus Serve as Hypomochlion within the Lower Limb by a Myofascial Connection?—A Systematic Review" Life 11, no. 8: 745. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11080745

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