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Obesity, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Dietary Habits of Saudi Adolescents Living in Riyadh (ATLS-2 Project): Revisited after a Ten-Year Period

Lifestyle and Health Research Center, Health Sciences Research Center, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11552, Saudi Arabia
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Academic Editor: Massimiliano Valeriani
Life 2021, 11(10), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101078
Received: 11 September 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Pathology)
Objective: Undesirable lifestyle behaviors are associated with many adverse health outcomes. This study revisited the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and overweight/obesity status of Saudi adolescents from Riyadh during the year 2019/2020. We report on the rationale, design, and methodology of the current study and provide preliminary findings of the changes that occurred between the two cross-sectional studies within the span of a ten-year period. Methods: A comparison was made between two cross-sectional studies, one conducted in 2009/2010 and the other in 2019/2020, using the same design, methods, and instruments. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used to select adolescents attending public and private secondary schools. Measurements included demographics, weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity (using valid questionnaire and accelerometer), sedentary time, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Results: The total number of participants was 1262 adolescents, of which 52.4% were male, with a mean (SD) age of 16.4 ± 0.95 years. About 41% of paternal and 39.1% of maternal education levels were university degrees. Over 37% of the families earned more than SAR 20,000/month. Body mass index and waist circumference of males was larger than that of females and the overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 40.5% with significance (p < 0.001) difference between males (47.3%) and females (32.8%). Between 2009/2010 and 2019/2020 datasets, there were significant changes in age (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p < 0.001), screen time (p < 0.001), moderate-intensity physical activity (p < 0.001), vigorous-intensity physical activity (p < 0.001), total physical activity (p < 0.001), and consumption of breakfast (p = 0.015) and fruits (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The most notable change between the two studies was a significant reduction in the prevalence of physical inactivity among Saudi adolescents, which was due to increased levels of moderate-intensity physical activity among Saudi females, as a result of recent positive sociopolitical changes occurring in the country over the past four years. The findings provided rich information that can be used to explore trends in overweight/obesity, lifestyle behaviors, and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents over the past ten-year period. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescents; lifestyle behaviors; obesity; physical activity; sedentary behaviors; dietary habits; sleep; health behaviors adolescents; lifestyle behaviors; obesity; physical activity; sedentary behaviors; dietary habits; sleep; health behaviors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Hazzaa, H.M.; Albawardi, N.M. Obesity, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Dietary Habits of Saudi Adolescents Living in Riyadh (ATLS-2 Project): Revisited after a Ten-Year Period. Life 2021, 11, 1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101078

AMA Style

Al-Hazzaa HM, Albawardi NM. Obesity, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Dietary Habits of Saudi Adolescents Living in Riyadh (ATLS-2 Project): Revisited after a Ten-Year Period. Life. 2021; 11(10):1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101078

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M., and Nada M. Albawardi. 2021. "Obesity, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Dietary Habits of Saudi Adolescents Living in Riyadh (ATLS-2 Project): Revisited after a Ten-Year Period" Life 11, no. 10: 1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101078

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