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Identification and Validation of Aerobic Adaptation QTLs in Upland Rice

by Peng Xu 1,2,3, Jun Yang 2, Zhenbing Ma 2, Diqiu Yu 2, Jiawu Zhou 3, Dayun Tao 3,* and Zichao Li 1,*
State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology/Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
Yunnan Key Laboratory for Rice Genetic Improvement, Food Crops Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650200, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Life 2020, 10(5), 65;
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Science and Engineering)
The aerobic adaptation of upland rice is considered as the key genetic difference between upland rice and lowland rice. Genetic dissection of the aerobic adaptation is important as the basis for improving drought tolerance and terrestrial adaptation by using the upland rice. We raised BC1-BC3 introgression lines (ILs) in lowland rice Minghui 63 (MH63) background. The QTLs of yield and yield-related traits were detected based on ILs under the aerobic and lowland environments, and then the yield-related QTLs were identified in a backcrossed inbred population of BC4F5 under aerobic condition. We further verified phenotypes of QTL near-isogenic lines. Finally, three QTLs responsible for increasing yield in aerobic environment were detected by multiple locations and generations, which were designated as qAER1, qAER3, and qAER9 (QTL of aerobic adaptation). The qAER1 and qAER9 were fine-mapped. We found that qAER1 and qAER9 controlled plant height and heading date, respectively; while both of them increased yields simultaneously by suitable plant height and heading date without delay in the aerobic environment. The phenotypic differences between lowland rice and upland rice in the aerobic environment further supported the above results. We pyramided the two QTLs as corresponding molecular modules in the irrigated lowland rice MH63 background, and successfully developed a new upland rice variety named as Zhongkexilu 2. This study will lay the foundation for using aerobic adaptation QTLs in rice breeding programs and for further cloning the key genes involved in aerobic adaptation. View Full-Text
Keywords: upland rice; aerobic adaptation; introgression lines; QTL near-isogenic lines; breeding upland rice; aerobic adaptation; introgression lines; QTL near-isogenic lines; breeding
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Xu, P.; Yang, J.; Ma, Z.; Yu, D.; Zhou, J.; Tao, D.; Li, Z. Identification and Validation of Aerobic Adaptation QTLs in Upland Rice. Life 2020, 10, 65.

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