# Fault Detection and Condition Monitoring of PMSGs in Offshore Wind Turbines

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{2}, and associated condition monitoring systems have a key role in their availability, ultimately, driving the reduction of the cost of energy.

## 2. Fault Detection and Condition Monitoring

## 3. Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring Methods

## 4. Direct Drive PMSGs for Wind Turbines

_{d}, i

_{q}) and flux linkages (ψ

_{d}, ψ

_{q}) generate harmonics in electromagnetic torque:

## 5. Analysis of PMSG Faults

- Stator insulation faults resulting in open-circuit or short-circuit faults;
- Abnormal connection of the stator windings;
- Static and/or dynamic airgap eccentricity due to damaged support structures (bearing, shaft, stator support structures);
- Demagnetization of permanent magnets.

- Increased discharged activity (partial discharges);
- Stray flux or leakage currents;
- Unbalanced/asymmetric terminal voltages and currents;
- Harmonics in electrical power;
- Increased torque pulsations;
- Increased noise and vibration;
- Increased losses and reduction in efficiency, and decrease of average torque;
- Excessive heating;
- Smoke.

## 6. Offline Testing of PMSGs

#### 6.1. Insulation Resistance and Polarization Index

#### 6.2. DC and AC Hipot Test

#### 6.3. Capacitance

#### 6.4. Dissipation Factor

#### 6.5. Offline Partial Discharge

#### 6.6. Surge Voltage Test

#### 6.7. Thermal Imaging

#### 6.8. Converter Offline Tests

## 7. Online Fault Detection for PMSGs

#### 7.1. Stator Current Signature Analysis

#### 7.2. Unbalanced Current, Voltage, and Power Signals

#### 7.3. Model-Based Approaches

#### 7.4. Signal Injection

#### 7.5. Flux Monitoring

#### 7.6. Innovative Approaches

## 8. Condition Monitoring of PMSGs

## 9. Experience with Stator Winding Failure

## 10. Fault-Tolerant PMSGs

## 11. Conclusions and Research Challenges

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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Stator | Rotor | Support Structures | Cooling | Instrumentation |
---|---|---|---|---|

Winding insulation (groundwall, interturn) End windings Core Wedges | Permanent magnets | Bearings Shaft Stator support structure Rotor house | Heat exchangers Pipework Fans Motors | Sensors Acquisition systems Controllers |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Freire, N.M.A.; Cardoso, A.J.M.
Fault Detection and Condition Monitoring of PMSGs in Offshore Wind Turbines. *Machines* **2021**, *9*, 260.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9110260

**AMA Style**

Freire NMA, Cardoso AJM.
Fault Detection and Condition Monitoring of PMSGs in Offshore Wind Turbines. *Machines*. 2021; 9(11):260.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9110260

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Freire, Nuno M. A., and Antonio J. Marques Cardoso.
2021. "Fault Detection and Condition Monitoring of PMSGs in Offshore Wind Turbines" *Machines* 9, no. 11: 260.
https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9110260