The Echassières district in central France contains complex rare-element ore deposits, whose formation is related to exotic igneous events and several hydrothermal episodes that are not entirely understood to date. Tungsten mineralization consists of three generations of wolframite, characterized by distinct Fe/Mn ratios (8.4; 3.5 and 0.3, for wolframite a
, respectively), formed during three separate hydrothermal episodes related to the Variscan orogeny. Wolframite a
occurs in quartz veins of the La Bosse stockwork where it crystallized before the Barrovian metamorphism that affected these veins and the host rock. After metamorphism, before intrusion of the Beauvoir and Colettes granites, wolframite b
crystallized in the stockwork during massive topazification. High concentrations of wolframite c
occur in the proximal quartz veins in the Mazet area, while only scant amounts are found in the La Bosse stockwork. In both settings, wolframite c
precipitated from the fluid responsible for greisen alteration that massively affected the Beauvoir granite. In the La Bosse stockwork, greisen alteration is characterized by hydrothermal topaz that is texturally and chemically distinct from that precipitated during topazification. Supergene alteration responsible for kaolinization of Beauvoir and Colettes granites caused remobilization of a non-negligible amount of tungsten (W) during replacement of wolframite by W-rich goethite in all units of the Echassières district. This model for multiple W mineralizing events is novel and can prove essential in distinguishing potential economic deposits worldwide.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited