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Apatite Biominerals

CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, CS 44362, 31030 Toulouse cedex 4, France
CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Université Paul Sabatier, Faculté de Pharmacie, 35 Chemin des Maraichers, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Karim Benzerara, Jennyfer Miot and Thibaud Coradin
Minerals 2016, 6(2), 34;
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 5 April 2016
PDF [2777 KB, uploaded 5 April 2016]


Calcium phosphate apatites offer outstanding biological adaptability that can be attributed to their specific physico-chemical and structural properties. The aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the specific characteristics of calcium phosphate apatite biominerals in vertebrate hard tissues (bone, dentine and enamel). Firstly, the structural, elemental and chemical compositions of apatite biominerals will be summarized, followed by the presentation of the actual conception of the fine structure of synthetic and biological apatites, which is essentially based on the existence of a hydrated layer at the surface of the nanocrystals. The conditions of the formation of these biominerals and the hypothesis of the existence of apatite precursors will be discussed. Then, we will examine the evolution of apatite biominerals, especially during bone and enamel aging and also focus on the adaptability of apatite biominerals to the biological function of their related hard tissues. Finally, the diagenetic evolution of apatite fossils will be analyzed. View Full-Text
Keywords: biominerals; calcium phosphate apatites; bone; enamel; dentine; crystallization; chemical composition; evolution; surface reactivity biominerals; calcium phosphate apatites; bone; enamel; dentine; crystallization; chemical composition; evolution; surface reactivity

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Combes, C.; Cazalbou, S.; Rey, C. Apatite Biominerals. Minerals 2016, 6, 34.

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