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Open AccessArticle

Ore Genesis of the Kuergasheng Pb–Zn Deposit, Xinjiang Province, Northwest China: Constraints from Geology, Fluid Inclusions, and H–O–C–S–Pb Isotopes

1
Xinjiang Key Laboratory for Geodynamic Processes and Metallogenic Prognosis of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, College of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830047, China
2
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130061, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(7), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070592
Received: 12 June 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ore Genesis and Metamorphism: Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Isotopes)
The Kuergasheng Pb–Zn deposit is located in the Western Tianshan Orogen, Xinjiang Province, China. The ore bodies are mainly hosted in sandstone of the Tuosikuertawu Formation and are controlled by NW-trending faults. Three paragenetic stages were identified: early pyrite–chalcopyrite–quartz veins (stage 1), middle galena–sphalerite–quartz veins (stage 2), and late sulfide-poor calcite–quartz veins (stage 3). Fluid inclusions (FIs) include liquid-rich aqueous (LV-type), vapor-rich aqueous (VL-type), halite-bearing (S-type), and monophase liquid aqueous (L-type). Homogenization temperatures for FIs from stages 1–3 are 221–251, 173–220, and 145–172 °C, respectively. Stage 1 fluids in LV-, VL-, and S-type FIs yield salinities of 6.2–9.6, 1.7–3.1, and 32.7–34.9 wt % NaCl equiv., respectively. Stage 2 fluids in LV- and S-type FIs have salinities of 5.1–7.9 and 31.9–32.1 wt % NaCl equiv., respectively. Stage 3 fluids in LV- and L-type FIs have salinities of 3.4–5.9 wt % NaCl equiv. Oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon isotopic data (δ18OH2O = –7.7 to 1.7‰, δDH2O = –99.2 to –83.1‰, δ13CH2O = –16.6 to 9.1‰) indicate that the ore-forming fluids have a hybrid origin —an initial magmatic source with input of meteoric water becoming dominant in the later stage. Sulfur and lead isotopic data for galena (δ34S = 5.6 to 6.9‰, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.002–18.273, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.598–15.643, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.097–38.209) reveal that the ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the Beidabate intrusive body and the Tuosikuertawu Formation.
Keywords: fluid inclusion; isotope geochemistry; epithermal; Pb–Zn deposit; Western Tianshan fluid inclusion; isotope geochemistry; epithermal; Pb–Zn deposit; Western Tianshan
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, S.; Chen, C.; Gao, L.; Xia, F.; Zhang, X.; Wang, K.; Arkin, K. Ore Genesis of the Kuergasheng Pb–Zn Deposit, Xinjiang Province, Northwest China: Constraints from Geology, Fluid Inclusions, and H–O–C–S–Pb Isotopes. Minerals 2020, 10, 592.

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