The Behaviour of Siderite Rocks in an Experimental Imitation of Pyrometamorphic Processes in Coal-Waste Fires: Upper and Lower Silesian Case, Poland
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. LSCB Siderite—Possible Phases Formed during the Heating—and Cooling Experiment
4.2. Comparative Characterization with USCB Siderite
4.3. The Behaviour of the Main Mineral Phases during the Experiment
4.3.2. Magnetite and Wüstite
4.3.4. Other Phases
- Siderite was still present at 480 °C but diminished at 500 °C and, in the USCB sample, vanished at ~560 °C.
- Magnetite crystallized from 400 °C, with saturation expected at 660–680 °C. Magnetite crystallization was dynamic during the progressive process, as evidenced from the FWHM–temperature relationship, although it was still an important phase at the higher-temperature end of the process. The retrograde crystallization of still abundant magnetite in the cooling sample was likely calmer with saturation being reached at 600 °C—a temperature coinciding with that found for the progressive part of the experiment. Magnesioferrite admixture was especially possible in the 600–660 °C range with positions of magnetite reflections at further stages seeming to suggest Mg substitution in the magnetite itself.
- Wüstite nucleation occurring in a semi-amorphous-like precursor at 500 °C was followed by a possible two-phase presence at 600 °C. A major crystallization event was expected between 620–640 °C. Saturation was reached at 780 °C as well as a second possible major nucleation event at ~880 °C. Traces of wüstite were expected to be present between 1080–1100 °C.
- Olivine became an important admixing species from ~900 °C or, more definitively, ~1100 °C. Saturation in the prograde part was reached at two steps in the USCB sample (~780–790 and ~1180 °C) and at ~1100 °C in the LSCB sample. Low- and mid-temperature counts-to-temperature function trajectories were similar but shifted towards higher temperatures in the LSCB siderite.
- Metallic iron and the garnet-structured skiagite were unconfirmed but possible additional final heating products. Iron seemed to grow up to 600 °C and then began to disappear. Its observed reflection seemed to change little in terms of its barycentrism throughout the entire process, suggesting a lack of diadochy substitutions.
- Barringerite constituted an important reduced Fe phase formed during the experiment.
- Cohenite was possible, especially in the 600–700 °C range. At 800 °C, the iron + cohenite pair seemed to be much more abundant than wüstite and especially graphite. On the other hand, all the reduced Fe species were clearly progressively removed starting at temperatures between 500–600 °C.
- Graphite was especially prominent between 600–800 °C in the prograde phase of the experiment.
- Clinopyroxene appeared to be most abundant at ~700 °C.
- Muscovite mica developed from ~680 °C and was relatively abundant at 800 °C.
- Cristobalite was important in the 500–600 °C range. Although still present at higher temperatures, typical tetragonal cristobalite may have been preceded by either C2221-structured SiO2 or a hexagonal polytype of tridymite.
- Bayerite may have be an important admixing product that started to nucleate at ~1100 °C and continued growing through both prograde heating and retrograde cooling.
- Graphite reflection at ~2.03 Å coincided with possible additional metallic iron.
Conflicts of Interest
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Kruszewski, Ł.; Ciesielczuk, J. The Behaviour of Siderite Rocks in an Experimental Imitation of Pyrometamorphic Processes in Coal-Waste Fires: Upper and Lower Silesian Case, Poland. Minerals 2020, 10, 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070586
Kruszewski Ł, Ciesielczuk J. The Behaviour of Siderite Rocks in an Experimental Imitation of Pyrometamorphic Processes in Coal-Waste Fires: Upper and Lower Silesian Case, Poland. Minerals. 2020; 10(7):586. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070586Chicago/Turabian Style
Kruszewski, Łukasz, and Justyna Ciesielczuk. 2020. "The Behaviour of Siderite Rocks in an Experimental Imitation of Pyrometamorphic Processes in Coal-Waste Fires: Upper and Lower Silesian Case, Poland" Minerals 10, no. 7: 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10070586