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Open AccessArticle

A Plethora of Epigenetic Minerals Reveals a Multistage Metasomatic Overprint of a Mantle Orthopyroxenite from the Udachnaya Kimberlite

1
Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
2
Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14/UZA2, Vienna 1090, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10030264
Received: 1 February 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 14 March 2020
More than forty mineral species of epigenetic origin have been identified in an orthopyroxenite from the Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe, Daldyn kimberlite field, Siberian platform. Epigenetic phases occur as: (1) Mineral inclusions in the rock-forming enstatite, (2) daughter minerals within large (up to 2 mm) crystallized melt inclusions (CMI) in the rock-forming enstatite, and (3) individual grains and intergrowths in the intergranular space of the xenolith. The studied minerals include silicates (olivine, clinopyroxene, phlogopite, tetraferriphlogopite, amphibole-supergroup minerals, serpentine-group minerals, talc), oxides (several generations of ilmenite and spinel, rutile, perovskite, rare titanates of the crichtonite, magnetoplumbite and hollandite groups), carbonates (calcite, dolomite), sulfides (pentlandite, djerfisherite, pyrrhotite), sulfate (barite), phosphates (apatite and phosphate with a suggested crystal-chemical formula Na2BaMg[PO4]2), oxyhydroxide (goethite), and hydroxyhalides (kuliginite, iowaite). The examined epigenetic minerals are interpreted to have crystallized at different time spans after the formation of the host rock. The genesis of minerals is ascribed to a series of processes metasomatically superimposed onto the orthopyroxenite, i.e., deep-seated mantle metasomatism, infiltration of a kimberlite-related melt and late post-emplacement hydrothermal alterations. The reaction of orthopyroxene with the kimberlite-related melt has led to orthopyroxene dissolution and formation of the CMI, the latter being surrounded by complex reaction zones and containing zoned olivine grains with extremely high-Mg# (up to 99) cores. This report highlights the utility of minerals present in minor volume proportions in deciphering the evolution and modification of mantle fragments sampled by kimberlitic and other deep-sourced magmas. The obtained results further imply that the whole-rock geochemical analyses of mantle-derived samples should be treated with care due to possible drastic contaminations from “hiding” minor phases of epigenetic origin. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetic minerals; melt inclusions; xenolith; orthopyroxenite; kimberlite; multistage metasomatism; orthopyroxene dissolution; Udachnaya pipe; Siberian craton epigenetic minerals; melt inclusions; xenolith; orthopyroxenite; kimberlite; multistage metasomatism; orthopyroxene dissolution; Udachnaya pipe; Siberian craton
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Rezvukhin, D.I.; Alifirova, T.A.; Golovin, A.V.; Korsakov, A.V. A Plethora of Epigenetic Minerals Reveals a Multistage Metasomatic Overprint of a Mantle Orthopyroxenite from the Udachnaya Kimberlite. Minerals 2020, 10, 264.

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