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Article

Immobilization of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE) by Mineral-Based Amendments: Remediation of Contaminated Soils in Post-Industrial Sites

1
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
2
Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pl. Łódzki 4, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Faculty of Geoengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Słoneczna St. 45G, 10 719 Olsztyn, Poland
4
Faculty of Engineering, Artvin Coruh University, Seyitler Campus, 08000 Artvin, Turkey
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Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, UTP University of Science and Technology, Bernardyńska 6/8, 85-029 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
7
Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, 61200 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020087
Received: 14 December 2019 / Revised: 19 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments)
In many post-industrial sites, the high contents and high mobility of different potentially toxic elements (PTEs) make the soils unsuitable for effective management and use. Therefore, immobilization of PTE seems to be the best remediation option for such areas. In the present study, soil samples were collected in post-industrial areas in Northeastern Poland. The analyzed soil was characterized by especially high contents of Cd (22 mg·kg−1), Pb (13 540 mg·kg−1), and Zn (8433 mg·kg−1). Yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) and two types of mineral-based amendments were used to determine their combined remediation effect on PTE immobilization. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of chalcedonite and halloysite on plant growth, chlorophyll a fluorescence, the leaf greenness index (SPAD), PTE uptake, and the physicochemical properties and toxicity of soil. The application of chalcedonite resulted in the greatest increase in soil pH, whereas halloysite contributed to the greatest reduction in the contents of Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr in soil, compared with the control treatment. The addition of halloysite significantly increased plant biomass. The application of mineral-based amendments increased the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) in yellow lupine leaves. The leaf greenness index was highest in plants growing in soil amended with chalcedonite. The results of this study suggest that mineral-based amendments combined with yellow lupine could potentially be used for aided phytostabilization of multi-PTE contaminated soil in a post-industrial area. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil amendments; immobilization; halloysite; chalcedonite soil amendments; immobilization; halloysite; chalcedonite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Radziemska, M.; Bęś, A.; Gusiatin, Z.M.; Majewski, G.; Mazur, Z.; Bilgin, A.; Jaskulska, I.; Brtnický, M. Immobilization of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE) by Mineral-Based Amendments: Remediation of Contaminated Soils in Post-Industrial Sites. Minerals 2020, 10, 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020087

AMA Style

Radziemska M, Bęś A, Gusiatin ZM, Majewski G, Mazur Z, Bilgin A, Jaskulska I, Brtnický M. Immobilization of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE) by Mineral-Based Amendments: Remediation of Contaminated Soils in Post-Industrial Sites. Minerals. 2020; 10(2):87. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020087

Chicago/Turabian Style

Radziemska, Maja, Agnieszka Bęś, Zygmunt M. Gusiatin, Grzegorz Majewski, Zbigniew Mazur, Ayla Bilgin, Iwona Jaskulska, and Martin Brtnický. 2020. "Immobilization of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE) by Mineral-Based Amendments: Remediation of Contaminated Soils in Post-Industrial Sites" Minerals 10, no. 2: 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020087

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