Next Article in Journal
Powder XRD Structural Study of Ba2+ Modified Clinoptilolite at Different Stages of the Ion Exchange Process Conducted at Two Temperature Regimes—Room Temperature and 90 °C
Next Article in Special Issue
Phosphogypsum and Black Steel Slag as Additives for Ecological Bentonite-Based Materials: Microstructure and Characterization
Previous Article in Journal
Detrital Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Hf Isotope Geochemistry of the Hayang Group, SE Korea and the Himenoura and Goshoura Groups, SW Japan: Signs of Subduction-Related Magmatism after a Long Resting Period
Previous Article in Special Issue
Proposal for an Environmentally Sustainable Beneficiation Route for the Amphibolitic Itabirite from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero-Brazil

Thermal Beneficiation of Sra Ouertane (Tunisia) Low-Grade Phosphate Rock

Groupe Chimique Tunisien, Gabes 6000, Tunisia
École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint Etienne, 42023 Saint-Etienne, France
Proman Management GmbH, Weingartenstrasse 92, 2214 Auersthal, Austria
Td Lab Sustainable Mineral Resources, Danube University Krems, Dr.-Karl-Dorrek-Straße 30, 3500 Krems, Austria
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(11), 937;
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 10 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 22 October 2020
Low-grade phosphate rock from Sra Ouertane (Tunisia) was beneficiated using a thermal treatment consisting of calcination, quenching, and disliming. Untreated phosphate rock samples (group 1), calcined phosphate rock samples (group 2), as well as calcined, quenched, and dislimed (group 3) phosphate rock samples, were investigated using inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Besides, the particle size distribution of the aforementioned three groups was determined. The proposed thermal treatment successfully increased the P2O5 content of the untreated phosphate rock from 20.01 wt% (group 1) to 24.24 wt% (group 2) after calcination and, finally, 27.24 wt% (group 3) after calcination, quenching, and disliming. It was further found that the concentration of relevant accompanying rare earth elements (Ce, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, and Y) was increased and that the concentration of Cd could be significantly reduced from 30 mg/kg to 14 mg/kg with the proposed treatment. The resulting phosphate concentrate showed relatively high concentrations in metal oxides: Ʃ MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3 = 3.63 wt% and silica (9.81 wt%) so that it did not meet the merchant grade specifications of a minimum P2O5 content of 30 wt% yet. Removal of these elements could be achieved using additional appropriate separation techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermal beneficiation; calcination; low-grade phosphate rock; Sra Ouertane; Tunisia thermal beneficiation; calcination; low-grade phosphate rock; Sra Ouertane; Tunisia
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abbes, N.; Bilal, E.; Hermann, L.; Steiner, G.; Haneklaus, N. Thermal Beneficiation of Sra Ouertane (Tunisia) Low-Grade Phosphate Rock. Minerals 2020, 10, 937.

AMA Style

Abbes N, Bilal E, Hermann L, Steiner G, Haneklaus N. Thermal Beneficiation of Sra Ouertane (Tunisia) Low-Grade Phosphate Rock. Minerals. 2020; 10(11):937.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abbes, Noureddine, Essaid Bilal, Ludwig Hermann, Gerald Steiner, and Nils Haneklaus. 2020. "Thermal Beneficiation of Sra Ouertane (Tunisia) Low-Grade Phosphate Rock" Minerals 10, no. 11: 937.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop