Enantiomeric Separation of Tramadol and Its Metabolites: Method Validation and Application to Environmental Samples
AbstractThe accurate assessment of racemic pharmaceuticals requires enantioselective analytical methods. This study presents the development and validation of an enantioselective liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detection method for the concomitant quantification of the enantiomers of tramadol and their metabolites, N-desmethyltramadol and O-desmethyltramadol, in wastewater samples. Optimized conditions were achieved using a Lux Cellulose-4 column 150 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm isocratic elution, and 0.1% diethylamine in hexane and ethanol (96:4, v/v) at 0.7 mL min−1. The samples were extracted using 150 mg Oasis® mixed-mode cation exchange (MCX) cartridges. The method was validated using a synthetic effluent of a laboratory-scale aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor. The method demonstrated to be selective, accurate, and linear (r2 > 0.99) over the range of 56 ng L−1 to 392 ng L−1. The detection and the quantification limits of each enantiomer were 8 ng L−1 and 28 ng L−1 for tramadol and N-desmethyltramadol, and 20 ng L−1 and 56 ng L−1 for O-desmethyltramadol. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated in a screening study in influent and effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant. The results demonstrated the occurrence of tramadol enantiomers up to 325.1 ng L−1 and 357.9 ng L−1, in the effluent and influent samples, respectively. Both metabolites were detected in influents and effluents. View Full-Text
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Silva, C.; Ribeiro, C.; Maia, A.S.; Gonçalves, V.; Tiritan, M.E.; Afonso, C. Enantiomeric Separation of Tramadol and Its Metabolites: Method Validation and Application to Environmental Samples. Symmetry 2017, 9, 170.
Silva C, Ribeiro C, Maia AS, Gonçalves V, Tiritan ME, Afonso C. Enantiomeric Separation of Tramadol and Its Metabolites: Method Validation and Application to Environmental Samples. Symmetry. 2017; 9(9):170.Chicago/Turabian Style
Silva, Cátia; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Maia, Alexandra S.; Gonçalves, Virgínia; Tiritan, Maria E.; Afonso, Carlos. 2017. "Enantiomeric Separation of Tramadol and Its Metabolites: Method Validation and Application to Environmental Samples." Symmetry 9, no. 9: 170.
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