Next Article in Journal
Convergence Analysis on a Second Order Algorithm for Orthogonal Projection onto Curves
Next Article in Special Issue
The Development of Key Technologies in Applications of Vessels Connected to the Internet
Previous Article in Journal
Scale Effect and Anisotropy Analyzed for Neutrosophic Numbers of Rock Joint Roughness Coefficient Based on Neutrosophic Statistics
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Internet of Things Approach for Extracting Featured Data Using AIS Database: An Application Based on the Viewpoint of Connected Ships
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Symmetry 2017, 9(10), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9100209

Reliability Improved Cooperative Communication over Wireless Sensor Networks

1
School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
2
Department of Computer Science, Stony Brook University, New York, NY 11794, USA
3
School of Software, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 1 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Internet of Things)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6977 KB, uploaded 11 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

With the development of smart devices and connection technologies, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly intelligent. New or special functions can be obtained by receiving new versions of program codes to upgrade their software systems, forming the so-called smart Internet of Things (IoT). Due to the lossy property of wireless channels, data collection in WSNs still suffers from a long delay, high energy consumption, and many retransmissions. Thanks to wireless software-defined networks (WSDNs), software in sensors can now be updated to help them transmit data cooperatively, thereby achieving more reliable communication. In this paper, a Reliability Improved Cooperative Communication (RICC) data collection scheme is proposed to improve the reliability of random-network-coding-based cooperative communications in multi-hop relay WSNs without reducing the network lifetime. In WSNs, sensors in different positions can have different numbers of packets to handle, resulting in the unbalanced energy consumption of the network. In particular, nodes in non-hotspot areas have up to 90% of their original energy remaining when the network dies. To efficiently use the residual energy, in RICC, high data transmission power is adopted in non-hotspot areas to achieve a higher reliability at the cost of large energy consumption, and relatively low transmission power is adopted in hotspot areas to maintain the long network lifetime. Therefore, high reliability and a long network lifetime can be obtained simultaneously. The simulation results show that compared with other scheme, RICC can reduce the end-to-end Message Fail delivering Ratio (MFR) by 59.4%–62.8% under the same lifetime with a more balanced energy utilization. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; cooperative communications; adaptive transmitting power; message fail delivering ratio (MFR); network lifetime wireless sensor networks; cooperative communications; adaptive transmitting power; message fail delivering ratio (MFR); network lifetime
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Z.; Ma, M.; Liu, X.; Liu, A.; Zhao, M. Reliability Improved Cooperative Communication over Wireless Sensor Networks. Symmetry 2017, 9, 209.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top