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Article

Population Distribution in the Wake of a Sphere

1
Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
2
Laboratory for Fluid Physics, Pattern Formation and Biocomplexity, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Am Faßberg 17, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
3
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Am Faßberg 17, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
Symmetry 2020, 12(9), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091498
Received: 6 August 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 11 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Mechanics Physical Problems and Symmetry)
The physics of heat and mass transfer from an object in its wake has significant importance in natural phenomena as well as across many engineering applications. Here, we report numerical results on the population density of the spatial distribution of fluid velocity, pressure, scalar concentration, and scalar fluxes of a wake flow past a sphere in the steady wake regime (Reynolds number 25 to 285). Our findings show that the spatial population distributions of the fluid and the transported scalar quantities in the wake follow a Cauchy-Lorentz or Lorentzian trend, indicating a variation in its sample number density inversely proportional to the squared of its magnitude. We observe this universal form of population distribution both in the symmetric wake regime and in the more complex three dimensional wake structure of the steady oblique regime with Reynolds number larger than 225. The population density distribution identifies the increase in dimensionless kinetic energy and scalar fluxes with the increase in Reynolds number, whereas the dimensionless scalar population density shows negligible variation with the Reynolds number. Descriptive statistics in the form of population density distribution of the spatial distribution of the fluid velocity and the transported scalar quantities is important for understanding the transport and local reaction processes in specific regions of the wake, which can be used e.g., for understanding the microphysics of cloud droplets and aerosol interactions, or in the technical flows where droplets interact physically or chemically with the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: sphere wake; steady flow; axisymmetric wake; oblique wake; lattice Boltzmann method; direct numerical simulation; population density; Lorentzian distribution sphere wake; steady flow; axisymmetric wake; oblique wake; lattice Boltzmann method; direct numerical simulation; population density; Lorentzian distribution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bhowmick, T.; Wang, Y.; Iovieno, M.; Bagheri, G.; Bodenschatz, E. Population Distribution in the Wake of a Sphere. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1498. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091498

AMA Style

Bhowmick T, Wang Y, Iovieno M, Bagheri G, Bodenschatz E. Population Distribution in the Wake of a Sphere. Symmetry. 2020; 12(9):1498. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091498

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bhowmick, Taraprasad, Yong Wang, Michele Iovieno, Gholamhossein Bagheri, and Eberhard Bodenschatz. 2020. "Population Distribution in the Wake of a Sphere" Symmetry 12, no. 9: 1498. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091498

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