# RETRACTED: Hybrid Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques: A Simulation Study

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Experimental Investigation

^{2}(Sun, 2014). Reservoir characteristics of this oilfield are statistically depicted in Table 2.

#### 2.2. Interaction Between PPG and Surfactant

#### 2.3. Governing Equations for Polymer and Surfactant Flooding

#### 2.4. Governing Equations for PPG

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Water Cut

#### 3.2. Oil Rate

#### 3.3. Injected Pressure

#### 3.4. Recovery Factor

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

Parameter | Description |

${C}_{p}$ | Polymer concentration, ppm |

$\widehat{{C}_{p}}$ | Polymer adsorption concentration, ppm |

${F}_{p}$ | Inaccessible pore volume, dimensionless |

$\varnothing $ | Porosity, fraction |

${S}_{w}$ | Water saturation, dimensionless |

${\rho}_{R}$ | Rock density, $kg/{m}^{3}$ |

${\phi}_{ppg}^{\prime}$ | PPG retention in the porous media, fraction |

${\varnothing}_{0}$ | Original porosity, fraction |

$\lambda $ | Filtration coefficient, 1/m |

${\lambda}_{0}$ | Initial filtration coefficient, 1/m |

y | Experimental indices, dimensionless |

z | Experimental indices, dimensionless |

x | Experimental indices, dimensionless |

m | Geometrical constant parameter which is related to the grain sizes of the filler in the clean medium, dimensionless |

$\alpha $ | Experimental coefficient; dimensionless |

SWR | the swelling ratio in the polymer solution |

$\delta $ | Porosity reduction, dimensionless |

${\delta}_{max}$ | Value of specific deposit saturation, dimensionless |

$\psi $ | Desorption coefficient, dimensionless |

$v$ | Filtration rate, m/min |

C | Gelled particles mass concentration which is in the suspension mode, percent |

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**Figure 3.**Calculating injected pressure versus injected PV in the surfactant/particle gel (PPG) interaction.

Layers | Sand Thickness (m) | Water Saturation (%) | $\mathbf{Permeability}({10}^{-3}{\mathsf{\mu}\mathbf{m}}^{2})$ |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 2.72 | 47.31 | 541.47 |

2 | 1.13 | 45.37 | 546.28 |

3 | 1.30 | 48.14 | 581.67 |

4 | 0.72 | 48.55 | 602.54 |

5 | 1.12 | 49.63 | 658.32 |

6 | 1.90 | 49.89 | 664.22 |

Layer | $\mathbf{Areal}\mathbf{Permeability}({10}^{-3}\mathsf{\mu}{\mathbf{m}}^{2})$ | $\mathbf{Vertical}\mathbf{Permeability}({10}^{-3}\mathsf{\mu}{\mathbf{m}}^{2})$ | Porosity | Oil Saturation (%) |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 200 | 20 | 0.15 | 0.8 |

2 | 400 | 40 | 0.16 | 0.8 |

3 | 600 | 60 | 0.17 | 0.8 |

4 | 800 | 80 | 0.18 | 0.8 |

5 | 1000 | 100 | 0.19 | 0.8 |

6 | 1200 | 120 | 0.20 | 0.8 |

7 | 1400 | 140 | 0.21 | 0.8 |

8 | 1600 | 160 | 0.22 | 0.8 |

9 | 1800 | 180 | 0.23 | 0.8 |

10 | 2000 | 200 | 0.24 | 0.8 |

Depth (m) | 1173–1230 |

Net Thickness (m) | 14.2 |

Porosity (%) | 33 |

$\mathbf{Permeability}({10}^{-3}\mathsf{\mu}{\mathbf{m}}^{2})$ | 1.5–2.5 |

Oil Viscosity (mPa.s) | 16.3 |

Temperature (°C) | 65.9 |

Salinity (mg/L) | 5923 |

**Table 4.**The procedure of flooding operations in the interaction of polymer/surfactant/PPG (Sun, 2014).

Stage | Procedure |
---|---|

1 | Water injected into the core sample to reach the water cut up to 98%. |

2 | 0.7 PV of polymer with the concentration of 1000 mg/L is injected. |

3 | 0.3 PV of water is injected again. |

4 | 0.3 PV of PPG with the concentration of 2000 mg/L is injected. |

5 | 0.2 PV of cross-linking agent with a concentration of 100 mg/L is injected. |

6 | 0.3 PV of surfactant is injected. |

7 | Water injected into the core sample to reach the water cut up to 98%. |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhou, H.; Davarpanah, A.
RETRACTED: Hybrid Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques: A Simulation Study. *Symmetry* **2020**, *12*, 1086.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071086

**AMA Style**

Zhou H, Davarpanah A.
RETRACTED: Hybrid Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques: A Simulation Study. *Symmetry*. 2020; 12(7):1086.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071086

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhou, Haiyan, and Afshin Davarpanah.
2020. "RETRACTED: Hybrid Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques: A Simulation Study" *Symmetry* 12, no. 7: 1086.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071086