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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Zinc Oxide Nano-Additives and Soybean Biodiesel at Varying Loads and Compression Ratios on VCR Diesel Engine Characteristics

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner, Ahmednagar 422608, India
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zeal College of Engineering and Research, Pune 411041, India
Department of Mechanical Engineering, D Y Patil College of Engineering, Ambi Talegaon Tal Maval, Pune 410506, India
Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
Faculty of Electrical—Electronic Engineering, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174, USA
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dharan 31261, Saudi Arabia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, KLE Technological University, Vidyanagar, Hubli 580031, India
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Environment Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Department of Mechanical Design and Manufacturing Engineering, School of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama 1888, Ethiopia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2020, 12(6), 1042;
Received: 10 May 2020 / Revised: 28 May 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofluids in Advanced Symmetric Systems)
The present investigation is directed towards synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and steady blending with soybean biodiesel (SBME25) to improve the fuel properties of SBME25 and enhance the overall characteristics of a variable compression ratio diesel engine. The soybean biodiesel (SBME) was prepared using the transesterification reaction. Numerous characterization tests were carried out to ascertain the shape and size of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The synthesized asymmetric ZnO nanoparticles were dispersed in SBME25 at three dosage levels (25, 50, and 75 ppm) with sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) surfactant using the ultrasonication process. The quantified physicochemical properties of all the fuels blends were in symmetry with the American society for testing and materials (ASTM) standards. Nanofuel blends demonstrated enhanced fuel properties compared with SBME25. The engine was operated at two different compression ratios (18.5 and 21.5) and a comparison was made, and best fuel blend and compression ratio (CR) were selected. Fuel blend SBME25ZnO50 and compression ratio (CR) of 21.5 illustrated an overall enhancement in engine characteristics. For SBME25ZnO50 and CR 21.5 fuel blend, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) increased by 23.2%, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were reduced by 26.66%, and hydrocarbon (HC), CO, smoke, and CO2 emissions were reduced by 32.234%, 28.21% 22.55% and 21.66%, respectively; in addition, the heat release rate (HRR) and mean gas temperature (MGT) improved, and ignition delay (ID) was reduced. In contrast, the NOx emissions increased for all the nanofuel blends due to greater supply of oxygen and increase in the temperature of the combustion chamber. At a CR of 18.5, a similar trend was observed, while the values of engine characteristics were lower compared with CR of 21.5. The properties of nanofuel blend SBME25ZnO50 were in symmetry and comparable to the diesel fuel. View Full-Text
Keywords: soybean biodiesel; zinc oxide nanoparticles; compression ratio; VCR engine performance; emissions soybean biodiesel; zinc oxide nanoparticles; compression ratio; VCR engine performance; emissions
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S. Gavhane, R.; M. Kate, A.; Pawar, A.; Safaei, M.R.; M. Soudagar, M.E.; Mujtaba Abbas, M.; Muhammad Ali, H.; R Banapurmath, N.; Goodarzi, M.; Badruddin, I.A.; Ahmed, W.; Shahapurkar, K. Effect of Zinc Oxide Nano-Additives and Soybean Biodiesel at Varying Loads and Compression Ratios on VCR Diesel Engine Characteristics. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1042.

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